A report on Kublai KhanInner Mongolia and Beijing

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
Inner Mongolian steppes
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
Theater in Hohhot
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Beijing products treemap, 2020
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
The skyline of Beijing CBD
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Ulaanbutan grassland
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Inner Mongolian grassland
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Inside the Forbidden City
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Niujie Mosque
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Alshaa mountain scenery
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

Liu was a painter, calligrapher, poet, and mathematician, and he became Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to his temple in modern Beijing.

- Kublai Khan

Kublai received the viceroyalty over northern China and moved his ordo to central Inner Mongolia.

- Kublai Khan

In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty.

- Inner Mongolia

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

- Beijing

Two generations later, Kublai Khan ordered the construction of Dadu (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new capital for his Yuan dynasty to the northeast of the Zhongdu ruins.

- Beijing

Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.

- Inner Mongolia
Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state

Yuan dynasty

2 links

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Mongol successor khanates
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Yuan porcelain jar
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Map of the Northwest territory
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20091202081843/http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Military costume.
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Yuan cavalry
Yuan Mongol soldier
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (, Yeke Yuwan Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and a conquest dynasty of imperial China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

He adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu.

Kublai readied the move of the Mongol capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in 1264, constructing a new city near the former Jurchen capital Zhongdu, now modern Beijing, in 1266.

Ruins of Shangdu

Shangdu

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Ruins of Shangdu
Ruins of Shangdu
Shangdu (here spelled Ciandu, as Marco Polo spelled it) on the French map of Asia made by Sanson d'Abbeville, geographer of King Louis XIV, dated 1650. It also shows a Xandu east of Cambalu, where English maps placed it. Like some other European maps of the time, this map shows Cambalu and Pequin as two different cities, but they were in fact the same city, now called Beijing. When this map was made, Shangdu had been in ruins for almost three centuries.
Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu

Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the summer capital of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai decided to move his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū , which was renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

Shangdu is located in the present-day Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia.

Mongolia

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

40px
7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty.

He set up his capital in present-day Beijing.

By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty.