A report on BeijingQing dynasty and Inner Mongolia

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Qing Empire in 1636
Inner Mongolian steppes
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Theater in Hohhot
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Beijing products treemap, 2020
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
Yixin, Prince Gong
Ulaanbutan grassland
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Inner Mongolian grassland
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Inside the Forbidden City
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Yuan Shikai
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Qing China in 1911
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Niujie Mosque
A Qing dynasty mandarin
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Qing China in 1832
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Alshaa mountain scenery
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Patriarchal family
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
An articulated Beijing bus
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

The Qing dynasty established control over Beijing in 1644, then later expanded its rule over the whole of China proper, and finally expanded into Inner Asia.

- Qing dynasty

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

- Beijing

Dorgon established the Qing dynasty as a direct successor of the Ming (delegitimising Li Zicheng and his followers) and Beijing became China's sole capital.

- Beijing

Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia's prefectural regions were known as Leagues, a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the Qing dynasty.

- Inner Mongolia

Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.

- Inner Mongolia

Qing China reached its largest extent during the 18th century, when it ruled China proper (eighteen provinces) as well as the areas of present-day Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, at approximately 13 million km2 in size.

- Qing dynasty
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

Mongols

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Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

In 1550, Altan Khan led a Khalkha Mongol raid on Beijing.

By 1636, most Inner Mongolian nobles had submitted to the Qing dynasty founded by the Manchus.

Mongolia

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

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7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.

He set up his capital in present-day Beijing.

By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty.

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling

Great Wall of China

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Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
Huayi tu, a 1136 map of China with the Great Wall depicted on the northern edge of the country
The Great Wall of the Qin stretches from Lintao to Liaodong
The Great Wall of the Han is the longest of all walls, from Mamitu near Yumenguan to Liaodong
The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls
Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)
The Great Wall in 1907
A more rural portion of the Great Wall that stretches through the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair
Identical satellite images of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to lower right. In the image on the right, the Great Wall has been outlined in red. The region pictured is 12 x.
Great Wall of Han dynasty near Yumenguan.
Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
thumb|Remains of Beacon tower near Yumenguan, 2011
"The First Mound" – at Jiayu Pass, the western terminus of the Ming wall
The Great Wall near Jiayu Pass
Ming Great Wall remnant near Yinchuan
The Great Wall remnant at Yulin
The Great Wall at Badaling
The Juyongguan area of the Great Wall accepts numerous tourists each day
Gateway of Gubeikou Fortress
Environmental protection sign near Great Wall, 2011
Ming Great Wall at Simatai, overlooking the gorge
Mutianyu Great Wall. This is atop the wall on a section that has not been restored
The Old Dragon Head, the Great Wall where it meets the sea in the vicinity of Shanhai Pass
The Great Wall at dawn
Inside the watchtower
Badaling Great Wall during winter

Only during the Qing period did "Long Wall" become the catch-all term to refer to the many border walls regardless of their location or dynastic origin, equivalent to the English "Great Wall".

Dynasties founded by non-Han ethnic groups also built their border walls: the Xianbei-ruled Northern Wei, the Khitan-ruled Liao, Jurchen-led Jin and the Tangut-established Western Xia, who ruled vast territories over Northern China throughout centuries, all constructed defensive walls but those were located much to the north of the other Great Walls as we know it, within China's autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and in modern-day Mongolia itself.

While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the wall is in disrepair.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin

Manchu people

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Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen Jin
An imperial portrait of Nurgaci
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Prince Zaitao dresses in modern reformed uniform of late Qing dynasty
Noblewoman Wanyan Litongji, 1900s
"Banjin Inenggi" and Manchu linguistic activity by the government and students in Changchun, 2011
the cover of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans' Book
A musketeer wearing a queue and formal hat
Han and Manchu clothing coexisted during Qing dynasty
Han Chinese clothing in early Qing
Han Chinese general Zhang Zhiyuan wearing Qing military outfit.
Painting of the Qianlong Emperor hunting
Manchu wrestlers competed in front of the Qianlong Emperor
The performance of Manchu palace skaters on holiday
Octagonal drum performance on stage
Akšan, Manchu singer and ulabun artist
Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning.{{#tag:ref|Autonomous counties are shown in bright green. Counties with autonomous townships are in dark green, with the number of Manchu townshipin each county shown in red (or yellow). So are another 2 pictures|group=note}}
Manchu autonomous area in Jilin.
Manchu autonomous area in Hebei.
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party
Manchu Hunting party

The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties of China were established and ruled by the Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in northern China.

Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents.