A report on Yuan dynastyInner Mongolia and Beijing

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
Mongol successor khanates
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Inner Mongolian steppes
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Yuan porcelain jar
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
Theater in Hohhot
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Map of the Northwest territory
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Beijing products treemap, 2020
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Ulaanbutan grassland
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Inner Mongolian grassland
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Inside the Forbidden City
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Niujie Mosque
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20091202081843/http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Military costume.
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Yuan cavalry
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
Yuan Mongol soldier
An articulated Beijing bus
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

He adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu.

- Yuan dynasty

In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty.

- Inner Mongolia

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

- Beijing

Two generations later, Kublai Khan ordered the construction of Dadu (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new capital for his Yuan dynasty to the northeast of the Zhongdu ruins.

- Beijing

Kublai readied the move of the Mongol capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in 1264, constructing a new city near the former Jurchen capital Zhongdu, now modern Beijing, in 1266.

- Yuan dynasty

Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.

- Inner Mongolia
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty.

He set up his capital in present-day Beijing.

By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.

Kublai Khan

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Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Kublai (also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; Хубилай ; ; 23 September 1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his regnal name Setsen Khan (薛禪汗), was the founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

Liu was a painter, calligrapher, poet, and mathematician, and he became Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to his temple in modern Beijing.

Kublai received the viceroyalty over northern China and moved his ordo to central Inner Mongolia.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.

Northern Yuan

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Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.
Location of the Oirats
The tumens of the Mongolian Plateau and relict states of the Mongol Empire by 1500
Realm of Altan Khan in 1571
Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery established by Abtai Khan in the Khalkha heartland in the 16th century.
The White House of Tsogt Taij (White Castle) was built in 1601.
Major Mongol and Jurchen rulers prior to the Jurchen unification
Chahar-Jurchen War, 1619–1634
The various regimes on the Mongolian Plateau after the proclamation of Qing dynasty
Dzungar–Qing Wars, 1687–1757

It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen-led Later Jin dynasty in 1635.

In 1368, a Ming army advanced on the Yuan capital Khanbaliq or Dadu (present-day Beijing).

1333–1370), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu upon the approach of Ming forces.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )


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Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

By 1279, they conquered the Song dynasty and brought all of China proper under the control of the Yuan dynasty.

In 1550, Altan Khan led a Khalkha Mongol raid on Beijing.


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Northern province of China.

Northern province of China.

Nearly 1100-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Hebei in 1936
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Downtown Shijiazhuang.
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Hejian-styled donkey burger
A Ding ware bowl
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

Hebei borders the provinces of Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast and Liaoning to the northeast, as well as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north.

During the Yuan dynasty, the general region of Hebei was called the Zhongshu Province; during the Ming dynasty it was North Zhili; and during the Qing dynasty it was called the Zhili Province.

In 1421, when the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, the province started to be called as "North Zhili" or just "Zhili", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".

Ruins of Shangdu


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Ruins of Shangdu
Ruins of Shangdu
Shangdu (here spelled Ciandu, as Marco Polo spelled it) on the French map of Asia made by Sanson d'Abbeville, geographer of King Louis XIV, dated 1650. It also shows a Xandu east of Cambalu, where English maps placed it. Like some other European maps of the time, this map shows Cambalu and Pequin as two different cities, but they were in fact the same city, now called Beijing. When this map was made, Shangdu had been in ruins for almost three centuries.
Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu

Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the summer capital of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai decided to move his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū , which was renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

Shangdu is located in the present-day Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

The most important early gains was the Sixteen Prefectures (including present-day Beijing and part of Hebei) by fueling a proxy war that led to the collapse of the Later Tang dynasty (923–936).

At its height, the Liao dynasty controlled what is now Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia provinces in China, as well as northern portions of the Korean peninsula, portions of the Russian Far East, and much of the country of Mongolia.

Another influence of the Liao cultural tradition is seen in the Yuan dynasty's zaju (雜劇) theater, its associated orchestration, and the qu (曲) and sanqu (散曲) forms of Classical Chinese poetry.