A report on Beijing and Inner Mongolia

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Inner Mongolian steppes
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Theater in Hohhot
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Beijing products treemap, 2020
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
Ulaanbutan grassland
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Inner Mongolian grassland
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Inside the Forbidden City
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Niujie Mosque
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Alshaa mountain scenery
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

- Beijing

Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.

- Inner Mongolia
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

14 related topics with Alpha


North China

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Northern China (a much broader area named Beifang)

North China, or Huabei is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

The most important early gains was the Sixteen Prefectures (including present-day Beijing and part of Hebei) by fueling a proxy war that led to the collapse of the Later Tang dynasty (923–936).

At its height, the Liao dynasty controlled what is now Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia provinces in China, as well as northern portions of the Korean peninsula, portions of the Russian Far East, and much of the country of Mongolia.

Map of China's prefectural level divisions

Administrative divisions of China

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The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

Map of China's prefectural level divisions
Map of China's county-level divisions
The Qing dynasty in 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange

The Constitution of China provides for five levels: the provincial (province, autonomous region, municipality, and special administrative region), the prefectural (prefecture-level city [officially "city with district-level divisions" (设区的市) and "city without district-level divisions" (不设区的市)], autonomous prefecture, prefecture [additional division] and league [the alternative name of “prefecture” which is used in Inner Mongolia]), county (district, county, county-level city [officially “city without district-level divisions”], autonomous county, banner [the alternative name of “county” which is used in Inner Mongolia], autonomous banner [the alternative name of “autonomous county” which is used in Inner Mongolia], special district [additional division], forestry area [additional division]) and township.

Municipality of China, literally "direct-controlled city" in Chinese, there being actually four: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."

Cultural Revolution

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Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."
People in the countryside working at night to produce steel during the Great Leap Forward
The purge of General Luo Ruiqing solidified the Army's loyalty to Mao.
Mao waved to the "revolutionary masses" on the riverside before his "swim across the Yangtze"
A struggle session of Wang Guangmei, the wife of Liu Shaoqi.
Mao Zedong and Lin Biao surrounded by rallying Red Guards in Beijing. Source: China Pictorial
Tiananmen Square on September 15, 1966, the occasion of Chairman Mao's third of eight mass rallies with Red Guards in 1966. Source: China Pictorial
The remains of Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.
The Cemetery of Confucius was attacked by Red Guards in November 1966.
Anti-Liu Shaoqi rally
Propaganda oil painting of Mao during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Marshal Lin Biao was constitutionally confirmed as Mao's successor in 1969.
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book, Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.
Jiang Qing (left), who was the wife of Mao Zedong and a member of the Gang of Four, received the Red Guards in Beijing with Premier Zhou Enlai (center) and Kang Sheng. They were all holding the Little Red Book (Quotations from Mao) in their hands.
Jiang Qing
Deng Xiaoping became the paramount leader of China in 1978. He started "Boluan Fanzheng" that brought the country back to order, and initiated China's historic Reforms and Opening up.
A struggle session of Xi Zhongxun, the father of Xi Jinping (September 1967). Xi Zhongxun was labelled as an "anti-Party element". However, since late 2012, Xi Jinping and his allies have attempted to play down the disaster of the Cultural Revolution and reversed many reforms since the Boluan Fanzheng period, sparking concerns of a new Cultural Revolution.
Quotations of Mao Zedong on a street wall of Wuxuan County, one of the centers of Guangxi massacre and cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution Cemetery in Chongqing, China. At least 1,700 people were killed during the violent faction clash, with 400 to 500 of them buried in this cemetery.
The Tibetan Panchen Lama during a struggle session.
Struggle session of Sampho Tsewang Rigzin and his wife during the Cultural Revolution.
A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. Andingmen Inner Street became "Great Leap Forward Road", Taijichang Street became the "Road for Eternal Revolution", Dongjiaominxiang was renamed "Anti-Imperialist Road", Beihai Park was renamed "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park" and Jingshan Park became "Red Guard Park." Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.
Yao Tongbin, one of China's foremost missile scientists, was beaten to death by a mob in Beijing during the Cultural Revolution (1968). This caused Zhou Enlai to order special protection for key technical experts.
Remnants of a banner containing slogans from the Cultural Revolution in Anhui.
The ballet The Red Detachment of Women, one of the Model Dramas promoted during the Cultural Revolution.
Posters from the Cultural Revolution period
Buddhist statues defaced during the Cultural Revolution.
The central section of this wall shows the faint remnant marks of a propaganda slogan that was added during the Cultural Revolution, but has since been removed. The slogan read "Boundless faith that in Chairman Mao."

Mao had set the scene for the Cultural Revolution by "cleansing" powerful officials of questionable loyalty who were based in Beijing.

In Inner Mongolia, some 790,000 people were persecuted during the Inner Mongolia incident.