A report on TianjinBeijing and Song dynasty

1913 map of Tianjin
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
The Song dynasty at its greatest extent in 1111
Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tianjin Church Massacre.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Emperor Taizu of Song (960–976), a court portrait painting
Peiyang University, established 1895
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
A portrait of Emperor Taizong of Song ( 976–997)
Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song dynasty (960–1279).
Major crossing (Rue Général Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125)
Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin flood
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
A portrait of Emperor Gaozong of Song (r. 1127–1162)
P.R.China's 10th anniversary parade in Tianjin in 1959
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Southern Song in 1142. The western and southern borders remain unchanged from the previous map. However, the north of the Qinling Huaihe Line was under the control of the Jin dynasty. The Xia dynasty's territory generally remained unchanged. In the southwest, the Song dynasty bordered a territory about a sixth its size, the Dali dynasty.
Tianjin Eye
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Emperor Taizu of Song, Emperor Taizong of Song, prime minister Zhao Pu and other ministers playing Cuju, an early form of football, by Qian Xuan (1235–1305)
Monument of TEDA
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
A 12th-century painting by Su Hanchen; a girl waves a peacock feather banner like the one used in dramatical theater to signal an acting leader of troops.
Population density and low elevation coastal zones in the Tianjin area. Tianjin is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
The Donglin Academy, an educational institution equivalent to modern-day college. It was originally built in 1111 during the Northern Song dynasty.
Tianjin (labeled as T'IEN-CHIN (TIENTSIN) 天津) (1955)
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Traction trebuchet on an Early Song Dynasty warship from the Wujing Zongyao. Trebuchets like this were used to launch the earliest type of explosive bombs.
Map of the Hai River Basin
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Armoured Song cavalry
2011 satellite image of Tianjin. The city center was on the left, while the smaller urban area to the right was the Binhai New Area.
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
The Liaodi Pagoda, the tallest pre-modern Chinese pagoda, built in 1055; it was intended as a Buddhist religious structure, yet served a military purpose as a watchtower for reconnaissance.
Hai River in 2011
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Chinese calligraphy of mixed styles written by Song dynasty poet Mi Fu (1051–1107)
Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD.
Then-Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010
Beijing products treemap, 2020
Dried jujubes such as these were imported to Song China from South Asia and the Middle East. An official from Canton was invited to the home of an Arab merchant, and described the jujube as thus: "This fruit is the color of sugar, its skin and its pulp are sweet, and it gives the impression, when you eat it, of having first been cooked in the oven and then allowed to dry."
Tianjin city center
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.
Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Facsimile of Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of Four Unknowns
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin Qingyuan Electric Vehicle factory in 2009
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
The Yu Ji Tu, or "Map of the Tracks of Yu", carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xi'an. This 3 ft squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map. Yu refers to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Book of Documents, dated 5th–3rd centuries BCE.
Old Guanyinhao Bank
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
A plan and side view of a canal pound lock, a concept pioneered in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, the engineer Qiao Weiyo.
Crosstalk in Tianjin
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
are lines of Song dynasty stone statues
Nankai University
Inside the Forbidden City
Scholars of the Song dynasty claim to have collected ancient relics dating back as far as the Shang dynasty, such as this bronze ding vessel.
Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea, the dome mural of Tianjin railway station
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tire tram systems in Asia
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Tianjin railway station
Niujie Mosque
Tianjin West railway station
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
Tianjin Bus Route 606
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
A Mazu temple in Tianjin
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Tianjin Museum
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Tianjin Italian Town
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Tianjin Juilliard School in Binhai,Tianjin
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea.

- Tianjin

Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China.

- Beijing

Tianjin begins to be increasingly mentioned in records during the Song dynasty and gains importance during the Yuan dynasty.

- Tianjin

The Song dynasty used military force in an attempt to quell the Liao dynasty and to recapture the Sixteen Prefectures, a territory under Khitan control since 938 that was traditionally considered to be part of China proper (Most parts of today's Beijing and Tianjin).

- Song dynasty

The Liao fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1122, which gave the city to the Song dynasty and then retook it in 1125 during its conquest of northern China.

- Beijing
1913 map of Tianjin

3 related topics with Alpha


The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.

Grand Canal (China)

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Longest canal or artificial river in the world.

Longest canal or artificial river in the world.

The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.
The invention of the water-level-adjusting pound lock in the 10th century CE was done in response to the necessity of greater safety for the travel of barge ships along the rougher waters of the Grand Canal.
The Chinese invention of the pound lock system allows for water levels to be raised or lowered to improve travel in the canal.
The Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424) restored the Grand Canal in the Ming era.
Grand Canal. Drawing by William Alexander, draughtsman of the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793.
The Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou along the Grand Canal dated 1770.
Barges on the modern Grand Canal ("Li Canal" section) near Yangzhou
The Jiangnan Canal
Grand Canal tour boats, Suzhou
The canal in Jining City
The junction of the Lu Canal and South Canal
The Grand Canal at its northern terminus at Houhai in Beijing.
The South–North Water Transfer Project central route starting point in Nanyang. Looking "upstream", toward the Danjiangkou Reservoir, from which the water is coming.

Starting in Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River.

Ships in Chinese canals did not have trouble reaching higher elevations after the pound lock was invented in the 10th century, during the Song dynasty (960–1279), by the government official and engineer Qiao Weiyue.

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.


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Capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.
West Lake
Hangzhou CBD
A satellite image of the Yangtze River Delta. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen.
A mansion in Nanshan Road, Hangzhou
Zhejiang Stock Exchange in the Qianjiang Central Business District
Alibaba Group Headquarters
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda
West Lake at night
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou
Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou
Gilt silver Hōkyōintō Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, now in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum
Xihu Longjing (西湖龙井), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake
Leifeng Pagoda
Xi Hu Landscape by Li Song (1190–1264), showing the Leifeng Pagoda in the Southern Song Dynasty.
"Moon over the Peaceful Lake in Autumn", one of the Ten Scenes of the Xi Hu
Dreaming of the Tiger Spring, the burial place of monk Jigong.

According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), the city is classified as Beta (global second-tier) city, together with Chongqing, Nanjing and Tianjin in China.

According to the 2020 Hurun Global Rich List, Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in the number of resident billionaires.

Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.


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Northern province of China.

Northern province of China.

Nearly 1100-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Hebei in 1936
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Downtown Shijiazhuang.
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Hejian-styled donkey burger
A Ding ware bowl
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

In 1421, when the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, the province started to be called as "North Zhili" or just "Zhili", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".

The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars.

The capital was also moved from Baoding to the upstart city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin.