The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
1913 map of Tianjin
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tianjin Church Massacre.
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
Peiyang University, established 1895
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
Major crossing (Rue Général Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin flood
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
P.R.China's 10th anniversary parade in Tianjin in 1959
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Tianjin Eye
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
Monument of TEDA
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
Population density and low elevation coastal zones in the Tianjin area. Tianjin is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Tianjin (labeled as T'IEN-CHIN (TIENTSIN) 天津) (1955)
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Map of the Hai River Basin
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
2011 satellite image of Tianjin. The city center was on the left, while the smaller urban area to the right was the Binhai New Area.
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Hai River in 2011
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District
Beijing products treemap, 2020
Then-Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
Tianjin city center
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin Qingyuan Electric Vehicle factory in 2009
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Old Guanyinhao Bank
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Crosstalk in Tianjin
Inside the Forbidden City
Nankai University
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea, the dome mural of Tianjin railway station
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tire tram systems in Asia
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station
Niujie Mosque
Tianjin railway station
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
Tianjin West railway station
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Tianjin Bus Route 606
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
A Mazu temple in Tianjin
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Tianjin Museum
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Tianjin Italian Town
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Tianjin Juilliard School in Binhai,Tianjin
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China.

- Beijing

Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea.

- Tianjin
The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

29 related topics

Alpha

Hebei

Northern province of China.

Northern province of China.

Nearly 1100-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Hebei in 1936
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Downtown Shijiazhuang.
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Hejian-styled donkey burger
A Ding ware bowl
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

In 1421, when the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, the province started to be called as "North Zhili" or just "Zhili", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".

The capital was also moved from Baoding to the upstart city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin.

Nanjing

Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan, located to the east of the walled city of Nanjing, is the origin of the nickname "Jinling". The water in the front is Xuanwu Lake
A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.
The Śarīra pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.
Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty
The Ming Palace, also known as the "Forbidden City of Nanjing", was the imperial palace of the early Ming dynasty, when Nanjing was the capital of China.
Nanjing City Wall near Xuanwumen Gate
Mochou Lake
The Presidential Palace of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927
Japanese soldiers entering the walled city of Nanjing through the Gate of China
Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Map including Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING) (Walled)) (AMS, 1955)
Map of Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING))
Nanjing Region – Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.
Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog
People's Government of Nanjing City
Qinhuai River in 1920s
Old city of Nanjing 'Old Gate East'
Xinjiekou, Nanjing
Naning city centre in May 1987
Nanjing Zifeng Tower and the Purple Mountain in the background
Nanjing South Railway Station
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge
Nanjing Metro Construction Plan by 2022
Nanjing Lukou International Airport, NKG
Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge
Jiangnan Examination Hall
Kunqu
Nanjing Library
Nanjing Museum
Qinhuai River
Central Stadium
Nanjing Olympic Sports Center
City Wall of Nanjing and Yijiangmen Gate
East Gate of China
Qinhuai River
Jiming Temple
Jinghai Temple and Yuejiang Tower
Xuanwu Lake
The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing
Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake
Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Tower of Linggu Temple
Qixia Temple
Former Presidential Palace
Former National Assembly Building
Yihe Road
Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings
Former Capital Hotel
Former Academia Sinica Buildings
Gate of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery
Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain
National Purple Mountain Observatory
Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs
Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders
Jinling Hotel
Nanjing Youth Olympic Towers
Nanjing University, Gulou campus
Nanjing University, Xianlin campus
Southeast University, Sipailou campus
Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus

Nanjing is also considered a Beta (global second-tier) city classification, together with Chongqing, Hangzhou and Tianjin by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and ranked as one of the world's top 100 cities in the Global Financial Centres Index.

Nanjing has many highly-ranked educational institutions, with the number of universities listed in 147 National Key Universities ranking third (after Beijing and Shanghai), including Nanjing University, which has a long history and is among the world's top 20 universities ranked by Nature Index.

The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.

Grand Canal (China)

Longest canal or artificial river in the world.

Longest canal or artificial river in the world.

The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.
The invention of the water-level-adjusting pound lock in the 10th century CE was done in response to the necessity of greater safety for the travel of barge ships along the rougher waters of the Grand Canal.
The Chinese invention of the pound lock system allows for water levels to be raised or lowered to improve travel in the canal.
The Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424) restored the Grand Canal in the Ming era.
Grand Canal. Drawing by William Alexander, draughtsman of the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793.
The Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou along the Grand Canal dated 1770.
Barges on the modern Grand Canal ("Li Canal" section) near Yangzhou
The Jiangnan Canal
Grand Canal tour boats, Suzhou
The canal in Jining City
The junction of the Lu Canal and South Canal
The Grand Canal at its northern terminus at Houhai in Beijing.
The South–North Water Transfer Project central route starting point in Nanyang. Looking "upstream", toward the Danjiangkou Reservoir, from which the water is coming.

Starting in Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River.

The Mahavira Hall at Zhenru Temple, built in 1320

Shanghai

One of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China.

One of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China.

The Mahavira Hall at Zhenru Temple, built in 1320
The walled Old City of Shanghai in the 17th century
A map of Shanghai in 1884; Chinese area are in yellow, French in red, British in blue, American in orange.
The dismantlement of Old City walls, 1911
Zhabei District on fire, 1937
Jewish refugee students in Shanghai
Nanjing Road, 1967 during the Cultural Revolution
The urban area of Shanghai in 2016, along with its major islands. From northwest to southeast: Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the Jiuduansha shoals off Pudong. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen.
Population density and low elevation coastal zones in the Shanghai area. Shanghai is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
Site of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, a typical shikumen building in the former French Concession
Shanghai World Financial Center (left) and Jin Mao Tower (right)
Shanghai Municipal Government building
Map of central Shanghai
The Port of Shanghai
The Shanghai Stock Exchange is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization.
The F-22P frigate built by Hudong-Zhonghua for the Pakistan Navy
The Nanjing Pedestrian Street in the evening, with the Radisson New World Hotel in the background
Bird's-eye view of the golden pagoda of Jing'an Temple
The St. Ignatius Cathedral
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library
University City District in Songjiang
The Shanghai Metro is the longest metro system in the world.
Shanghai Metro Network
A maglev train leaving Pudong International Airport
BRT line 71 on the Bund
Interchange between Yan'an Elevated Road and North–South Elevated Road
Bicycle-sharing systems, such as ofo (yellow) and Mobike (orange), are common in Shanghai.
A CR400AF bullet train departing from Shanghai railway station
Inside Shanghai Pudong International Airport Terminal 1
Due to Yangshan Port, Shanghai has become the world's busiest container port.
Shanghai Citi Bank Building operates a light show, shining the phrase "I love Shanghai".
The China Art Museum, located in Pudong
Tomato paste replaces beetroot in Shanghai-style borscht.
十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School of Chinese art, c. 1850
Mei Lanfang performing the Peking opera "Resisting the Jin Army" at Tianchan Theatre
In this Shanghainese soap advertisement from the 1930s, two women are wearing Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf.
F1 Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai
Yao Ming was born in Shanghai. He started his career with the Shanghai Sharks.
Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Forest Sports City Arena
Statue of the Good Eighth Company on the Nanjing Road, People's Square
Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland
Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China smog.
A residual waste truck and a kitchen waste truck on Zhonghua Road
The Russian Consulate General in Shanghai, located on the banks of the Suzhou River
Skyline of Shanghai Pudong at night, September 2021
The Bund in the late 1920s seen from the French Concession
Nanking Road (modern-day East Nanjing Road) in the 1930s
Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades
Former Shanghai Library
The HSBC Building built in 1923 and the Customs House built in 1927
The Shanghai Museum
The Shanghai Grand Theater
The Shanghai Exhibition Center, an example of Stalinist architecture
The Oriental Pearl Tower at night
Shanghai Tower

Under the new People's Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces (the others being Beijing and Tianjin).

Hai River

The Bund of the Hai River.

The Hai River (海河, lit. "Sea River"), also known as the Peiho, Pei Ho ("White River"), or Hai Ho, is a Chinese river connecting Beijing to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea.

Map of China's prefectural level divisions

Administrative divisions of China

The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

Map of China's prefectural level divisions
Map of China's county-level divisions
The Qing dynasty in 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange

Examples are Pudong, Shanghai and Binhai, Tianjin.

Municipality of China, literally "direct-controlled city" in Chinese, there being actually four: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.

Hangzhou

Capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.
West Lake
Hangzhou CBD
A satellite image of the Yangtze River Delta. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen.
A mansion in Nanshan Road, Hangzhou
Zhejiang Stock Exchange in the Qianjiang Central Business District
Alibaba Group Headquarters
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda
West Lake at night
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou
Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou
Gilt silver Hōkyōintō Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, now in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum
Xihu Longjing (西湖龙井), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake
Leifeng Pagoda
Xi Hu Landscape by Li Song (1190–1264), showing the Leifeng Pagoda in the Southern Song Dynasty.
"Moon over the Peaceful Lake in Autumn", one of the Ten Scenes of the Xi Hu
Dreaming of the Tiger Spring, the burial place of monk Jigong.

According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), the city is classified as Beta (global second-tier) city, together with Chongqing, Nanjing and Tianjin in China.

According to the 2020 Hurun Global Rich List, Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in the number of resident billionaires.

Brookings Institution, founded in 1916 in Washington, D.C.

Globalization and World Cities Research Network

Think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

Think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

Brookings Institution, founded in 1916 in Washington, D.C.

🇨🇳 Beijing

🇨🇳 Tianjin

The Song dynasty at its greatest extent in 1111

Song dynasty

Imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279.

Imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279.

The Song dynasty at its greatest extent in 1111
Emperor Taizu of Song (960–976), a court portrait painting
A portrait of Emperor Taizong of Song ( 976–997)
A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song dynasty (960–1279).
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125)
A portrait of Emperor Gaozong of Song (r. 1127–1162)
Southern Song in 1142. The western and southern borders remain unchanged from the previous map. However, the north of the Qinling Huaihe Line was under the control of the Jin dynasty. The Xia dynasty's territory generally remained unchanged. In the southwest, the Song dynasty bordered a territory about a sixth its size, the Dali dynasty.
Emperor Taizu of Song, Emperor Taizong of Song, prime minister Zhao Pu and other ministers playing Cuju, an early form of football, by Qian Xuan (1235–1305)
A 12th-century painting by Su Hanchen; a girl waves a peacock feather banner like the one used in dramatical theater to signal an acting leader of troops.
The Donglin Academy, an educational institution equivalent to modern-day college. It was originally built in 1111 during the Northern Song dynasty.
Traction trebuchet on an Early Song Dynasty warship from the Wujing Zongyao. Trebuchets like this were used to launch the earliest type of explosive bombs.
Armoured Song cavalry
The Liaodi Pagoda, the tallest pre-modern Chinese pagoda, built in 1055; it was intended as a Buddhist religious structure, yet served a military purpose as a watchtower for reconnaissance.
Chinese calligraphy of mixed styles written by Song dynasty poet Mi Fu (1051–1107)
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD.
Dried jujubes such as these were imported to Song China from South Asia and the Middle East. An official from Canton was invited to the home of an Arab merchant, and described the jujube as thus: "This fruit is the color of sugar, its skin and its pulp are sweet, and it gives the impression, when you eat it, of having first been cooked in the oven and then allowed to dry."
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.
Facsimile of Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of Four Unknowns
The Yu Ji Tu, or "Map of the Tracks of Yu", carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xi'an. This 3 ft squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map. Yu refers to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Book of Documents, dated 5th–3rd centuries BCE.
A plan and side view of a canal pound lock, a concept pioneered in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, the engineer Qiao Weiyo.
are lines of Song dynasty stone statues
Scholars of the Song dynasty claim to have collected ancient relics dating back as far as the Shang dynasty, such as this bronze ding vessel.

The Song dynasty used military force in an attempt to quell the Liao dynasty and to recapture the Sixteen Prefectures, a territory under Khitan control since 938 that was traditionally considered to be part of China proper (Most parts of today's Beijing and Tianjin).

Wang Jingwei regime

Common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, the government of the puppet state of the Empire of Japan in eastern China called simply the Republic of China.

Common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, the government of the puppet state of the Empire of Japan in eastern China called simply the Republic of China.

The Wang Jingwei regime (dark red) and Mengjiang (light red) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Wang Jingwei was head of the Reorganized National Government.
The Wang Jingwei regime (dark red) and Mengjiang (light red) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Map of the Republic of China that was controlled by the reorganized national government in 1939 (dark green) Mengjiang was incorporated in 1940 (light green)
Wall bearing a government slogan that proclaims: "Support Mr. Wang Jingwei!"
Water Resource Committee of Wang Jingwei's puppet government
Advertisement of congratulation towards the establishment of the new Nationalist government on Taiwan Nichi Nichi Shimpō
Wang Jingwei at a military parade
Area of control of the invading Japanese forces
Wang Jingwei, Japanese ambassador Abe Nobuyuki, and Manchukuo ambassador Zang Shiyi sign the joint declaration, 30 November 1940
Wang Jingwei with ambassador Heinrich Georg Stahmer at the German embassy in 1941
Unused example of a Wang Jingwei regime passport, circa 1941
President Wang Jingwei at a military parade on the occasion of the third anniversary of the establishment of the government
Type 94 tankettes on parade (note the driver's Stahlhelm and the KMT blue and white sun emblem on the tanks)

The Japanese-controlled provinces of Shandong and Hebei were de jure part of this political entity, though they were de facto under military administration of the Japanese Northern China Area Army from its headquarters in Beijing.

Zhang Renli: Mayor of Tianjin Special City (1943)