Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief systemreligious beliefsjustified true beliefbelief systemsbelievebelieversbelieverbelieved
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case regardless of empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.wikipedia
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Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, and involved generally with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge.
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Doxa

opinioncommon beliefcommon opinion
In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa.
Doxa (ancient Greek δόξα; from verb δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept" ) is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, and involved generally with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge. In the view of some historians, the pre-Socratic Athenians saw science, political tradition, culture and religion as not easily distinguishable, but as all part of the same body of knowledge and wisdom available to a community.
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition.

Jerry Fodor

FodorFodor, JerryFodorian
Our common-sense understanding of belief is correct – Sometimes called the "mental sentence theory," in this conception, beliefs exist as coherent entities, and the way we talk about them in everyday life is a valid basis for scientific endeavour. Jerry Fodor is one of the principal defenders of this point of view.
Fodor argued that mental states, such as beliefs and desires, are relations between individuals and mental representations.

Faith

religious faithfaithsfaith-based
Commendatory / Faith – we may make an expression of 'faith' in respect of some performance by an agent X, when without prejudice to the truth value of the factual outcome or even confidence in X otherwise, we expect that specific performance. In particular self-confidence or faith in one's self is this kind of belief.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief.

Eliminative materialism

eliminativismeliminative materialisteliminative materialists
Our common-sense understanding of belief is entirely wrong and will be completely superseded by a radically different theory that will have no use for the concept of belief as we know it – Known as eliminativism, this view (most notably proposed by Paul and Patricia Churchland) argues that the concept of belief is like obsolete theories of times past such as the four humours theory of medicine, or the phlogiston theory of combustion. In these cases science hasn't provided us with a more detailed account of these theories, but completely rejected them as valid scientific concepts to be replaced by entirely different accounts. The Churchlands argue that our common-sense concept of belief is similar in that as we discover more about neuroscience and the brain, the inevitable conclusion will be to reject the belief hypothesis in its entirety.
Some supporters of eliminativism argue that no coherent neural basis will be found for many everyday psychological concepts such as belief or desire, since they are poorly defined.

Basic belief

properly basicbasic beliefsbasic
Beliefs are sometimes divided into core beliefs (that are actively thought about) and dispositional beliefs (that may be ascribed to someone who has not thought about the issue).
Foundationalism holds that all beliefs must be justified in order to be believed.

Cognitive dissonance

cognitive dissonance theorydissonancecognitive consistency
Charismatic leaders can form and/or modify beliefs (even if those beliefs fly in the face of all previous beliefs). Is belief voluntary? Rational individuals need to reconcile their direct reality with any said belief; therefore, if belief is not present or possible, it reflects the fact that contradictions were necessarily overcome using cognitive dissonance.
In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Internalization of beliefs during childhood, which can form and shape our beliefs in different domains. Albert Einstein is often quoted as having said that "Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen." Political beliefs depend most strongly on the political beliefs most common in the community where we live. Most individuals believe the religion they were taught in childhood. Religious belief is distinct from religious practice and from religious behaviours – with some believers not practicing religion and some practitioners not believing religion.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs.

Persuasion

persuasivepersuadepersuaded
There are several techniques for individuals or groups to change the beliefs of others; these methods generally fall under the umbrella of persuasion.
Persuasion can attempt to influence a person's beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
In a notion derived from Plato's dialogue Theaetetus, where the epistemology of Socrates (Platon) most clearly departs from that of the sophists, who at the time of Plato seem to have defined knowledge as what is here expressed as "justified true belief".
Many have interpreted Plato as stating—even having been the first to write—that knowledge is justified true belief, an influential view that informed future developments in epistemology.

Opinion

opinionsscientific opinionview
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, and involved generally with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge.
Today, Plato's analogy of the divided line is a well-known illustration of the distinction between knowledge and opinion, or knowledge and belief, in customary terminology of contemporary philosophy.

Gettier problem

Gettier casesclarificationepistemic luck
This theory of knowledge suffered a significant setback with the discovery of Gettier problems, situations in which the above conditions were seemingly met but that many philosophers disagree that anything is known.
Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called "Gettier-cases") challenge the long-held justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge.

Life stance

lifestancelife stance orthographylife stances
Without qualification, "belief" normally implies a lack of doubt, especially insofar as it is a designation of a life stance.
It involves the presuppositions and theories upon which such a stance could be made, a belief system, and a commitment to potentially working it out in one's life.

Doubt

self-doubtdubiousself-doubting
Without qualification, "belief" normally implies a lack of doubt, especially insofar as it is a designation of a life stance.
Doubt on an emotional level is indecision between belief and disbelief.

Mental state

mental statespsychological statepsychological states
So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial.
There are several paradigmatic states of mind that an agent has: love, hate, pleasure and pain, and attitudes toward propositions such as: believing that, conceiving that, hoping and fearing that, etc.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
The tendency to translate from belief (here: doxa – common opinion) to knowledge (here: episteme), which Plato (e.g. Socrates of the dialogue) utterly dismisses, results from failing to distinguish a dispositive belief (gr. In the view of some historians, the pre-Socratic Athenians saw science, political tradition, culture and religion as not easily distinguishable, but as all part of the same body of knowledge and wisdom available to a community.
To illustrate the use of the Socratic method, a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge.

Religious behaviour

behaviorsreligious behaviorbehavior
Religious belief is distinct from religious practice and from religious behaviours – with some believers not practicing religion and some practitioners not believing religion.
Religious behaviours are behaviours motivated by religious beliefs.

Propositional attitude

propositional attitudesattitudesattitude
So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial.
Belief

Apostasy

apostateapostatesapostatized
The antonym of "orthodox" is "heterodox", and those adhering to orthodoxy often accuse the heterodox of apostasy, schism, or heresy.
It can also be defined within the broader context of embracing an opinion contrary to one's previous beliefs.

Truth

truetheory of truthtruth theory
Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true.
Belief

Goal

objectiveobjectivesgoals
Because goals are based, in part on beliefs, the success or failure at a particular goal may contribute to modification of beliefs that supported the original goal.
Efficient goal work includes recognizing and resolving all guilt, inner conflict or limiting belief that might cause one to sabotage one's efforts.

Western culture

WesternWestern civilizationWest
Some believe that religion cannot be separated from other aspects of life, or believe that certain cultures did not or do not separate their religious activities from other activities in the same way that some people in modern Western cultures do.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

Edmund Gettier

GettierGettier, Edmund
Among American epistemologists, Gettier (1963) and Goldman (1967), have questioned the "justified true belief" definition, and challenged the "sophists" of their time.
Gettier provides several examples of beliefs that are both true and justified, but that we should not intuitively term knowledge.

Tradition

traditionaltraditionscustom
In the view of some historians, the pre-Socratic Athenians saw science, political tradition, culture and religion as not easily distinguishable, but as all part of the same body of knowledge and wisdom available to a community.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.