Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell LaboratoriesAT&T Bell LabsBell Telephone LabsNokia Bell LabsBell Laboratories, Lucent TechnologiesBell LabBellBell Laboratory
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984) ) is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia.wikipedia
2,313 Related Articles

Radio astronomy

radio astronomerradioradioastronomy
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way.

Nokia

Nokia CorporationNokia Research CenterNokia Growth Partners
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984) ) is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia.
After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on Internet of things technologies, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizedsilicon transistor
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S. In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Bradford Shockley (and who subsequently shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956).
The first working device to be built was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs.

Laser

laserslaser beamlaser light
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
In the early technical literature, especially at Bell Telephone Laboratories, the laser was called an optical maser; this term is now obsolete.

S (programming language)

SS programming languageS-Lang
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.

Holmdel Township, New Jersey

HolmdelHolmdel TownshipHolmdel, New Jersey
Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Freehold, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Neptune, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, Chester, and Whippany.
The township is notable, among other things, for its historical and present connection to Bell Labs.

Bell System

Bell Operating CompanyBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System.
Bell system telephones and related equipment were made by Western Electric, a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T Co. Member telephone companies paid a fixed fraction of their revenues as a license fee to Bell Labs.

Bell Laboratories Building (Manhattan)

Bell Laboratories Building463 West StreetBell Laboratories
In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City.
It was originally the home of Bell Telephone Laboratories between 1898 and 1966.

Murray Hill, New Jersey

Murray HillMurray Hill, NJ
With headquarters located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, the company operates several laboratories in the United States and around the world.
It is the longtime central location of Bell Labs (part of Nokia as of January 2016), having relocated there in 1941 from New York City when the division was still part of Western Electric.

C++

C++ programming languageC++98C with Classes
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language; he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C that also provided high-level features for program organization.

Western Electric

Western Electric CompanyWestrexWestern Electric Manufacturing Company
In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric.
Bell Telephone Laboratories was half-owned by Western Electric, the other half belonging to AT&T.

John Bertrand Johnson

John B. JohnsonJ. B. Johnson
In 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson, and Harry Nyquist provided the theoretical analysis; this is now termed Johnson noise.
In 1928, while at Bell Telephone Laboratories he published the journal paper "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors".

Control chart

control chartsAttribute chartCUSUM
In 1924, Bell Labs physicist Walter A. Shewhart proposed the control chart as a method to determine when a process was in a state of statistical control.
The control chart was invented by Walter A. Shewhart working for Bell Labs in the 1920s.

Homer Dudley

Homer Walter Dudley
In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the Voder, the first electronic speech synthesizer, were developed and demonstrated by Homer Dudley, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
Homer W. Dudley (14 November 1896– 18 September 1980) was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs in the 1930s and led the development of a method of sending secure voice transmissions during World War Two.

Gilbert Vernam

VernamVernam cipherGilbert Sandford Vernam
During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories.
Gilbert Sandford Vernam (3 April 1890 – 7 February 1960) was a Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1914 graduate and AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented an additive polyalphabetic stream cipher and later co-invented an automated one-time pad cipher.

Joseph Mauborgne

Joseph O. Mauborgne
During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories.
Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (February 26, 1881 – June 7, 1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs.

Bell Labs Holmdel Complex

Bell LabsBell Labs ComplexBell Labs facility
The Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The Bell Labs Holmdel Complex, in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States, functioned for forty-four years as a research and development facility, initially for the Bell System and later Bell Labs.

William Shockley

William B. ShockleyWilliam Bradford ShockleyBill Shockley
In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Bradford Shockley (and who subsequently shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956).
Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain.

Voder

The VoderBell Labs' Voder
In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the Voder, the first electronic speech synthesizer, were developed and demonstrated by Homer Dudley, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
The Bell Telephone Laboratory's Voder (from Voice Operating Demonstrator) was the first attempt to electronically synthesize human speech by breaking it down into its acoustic components.

Information theory

information-theoreticinformation theoristinformation
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
Prior to this paper, limited information-theoretic ideas had been developed at Bell Labs, all implicitly assuming events of equal probability.

Deal Test Site

Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Freehold, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Neptune, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, Chester, and Whippany.
Research continued through the 1930s in conjunction with Bell Telephone Laboratories (the successor to Western Electric’s research division), to use shorter wavelengths for radio transmission, this eventually led to the development of the microwave radio relay systems used to carry long distance telephone traffic in the latter half of the 20th century.

AT&T Corporation

AT&TAmerican Telephone and Telegraph CompanyAmerican Telephone & Telegraph
In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric.
NCR, Bell Labs and AT&T Technologies were to be spun off by 1997.

Stereophonic sound

StereoStereophonicstereo sound
In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the Voder, the first electronic speech synthesizer, were developed and demonstrated by Homer Dudley, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
In the United States, Harvey Fletcher of Bell Laboratories was also investigating techniques for stereophonic recording and reproduction.

Television

TVtelevisedtelevisions
In 1927, a Bell team headed by Herbert E. Ives successfully transmitted long-distance 128-line television images of Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover from Washington to New York.
Herbert E. Ives and Frank Gray of Bell Telephone Laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on 7 April 1927.

Johnson–Nyquist noise

thermal noiseJohnson noisenoise
In 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson, and Harry Nyquist provided the theoretical analysis; this is now termed Johnson noise.
This type of noise was discovered and first measured by John B. Johnson at Bell Labs in 1926.