Bell Labs

Bell Telephone LaboratoriesBell LaboratoriesAT&T Bell LaboratoriesAT&T Bell LabsAT&T's Bell LabsBellBell LaboratoryBell Telephone LaboratoryBell Telephone CompanyBell Telephone Labs
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is an industrial research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.wikipedia
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Radio astronomy

radio astronomerradioradioastronomy
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way.

Nokia

Nokia CorporationNokia GroupNokia India
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is an industrial research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization.

Laser

laserslaser beamlaser light
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
In the early technical literature, especially at Bell Telephone Laboratories, the laser was called an optical maser; this term is now obsolete.

S (programming language)

sS programming languageS-Lang
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.

Holmdel Township, New Jersey

HolmdelHolmdel TownshipHolmdel, New Jersey
Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Freehold, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Neptune, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, Chester, and Whippany.
The township is notable, among other things, for its historical and present connection to Bell Labs.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizeddiscrete transistor
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S. 1956: John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first transistors.
From November 17, 1947, to December 23, 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey of the United States performed experiments and observed that when two gold point contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, a signal was produced with the output power greater than the input.

Bell Laboratories Building (Manhattan)

Bell Laboratories Building463 West StreetBell Laboratories
The historic laboratory originated as the Western Electric Engineering Department in the late 19th century, located at 463 West Street, New York City.
It was originally the home of Bell Telephone Laboratories between 1898 and 1966.

C++

C++ programming languageC++ standardC++ language
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979, as an extension of the C language as he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C, which also provided high-level features for program organization.

Murray Hill, New Jersey

Murray HillMurray Hill, NJ
Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States and in other countries.
It is the longtime central location of Bell Labs (part of Nokia as of January 2016), having relocated there in 1941 from New York City when the division was still part of Western Electric.

Western Electric

Western Electric CompanyWestrexWestern Electric Manufacturing Company
In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories, under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric.
Bell Telephone Laboratories was half-owned by Western Electric, the other half belonging to AT&T.

William Shockley

Bill ShockleyShockleyWilliam Bradford Shockley
1956: John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first transistors.
Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain.

Steven Chu

Chu HallDirector Steven ChuDr. Steven Chu
1997: Steven Chu shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for developing methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
He is known for his research at Bell Labs and Stanford University regarding the cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, along with his scientific colleagues Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips.

Arthur Ashkin

A. AshkinArthur
2018: Arthur Ashkin shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on "the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" which was developed at Bell Labs.
Arthur Ashkin (born September 2, 1922) is an American scientist and Nobel laureate who worked at Bell Laboratories and Lucent Technologies.

Ken Thompson

K. ThompsonKen L. ThompsonKenneth Thompson
1983: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for their work on operating system theory, and for developing Unix.
Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system.

Bell Labs Holmdel Complex

Bell LabsBell Labs ComplexBell Labs facility
The Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The Bell Labs Holmdel Complex, in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, United States, functioned for forty-four years as a research and development facility, initially for the Bell System and later Bell Labs.

Information theory

information theoristinformation-theoreticinformation
Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device (CCD), information theory, the Unix operating system, and the programming languages C, C++, and S.
Prior to this paper, limited information-theoretic ideas had been developed at Bell Labs, all implicitly assuming events of equal probability.

Deal Test Site

Among the later Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Freehold, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Neptune, Princeton, Piscataway, Red Bank, Chester, and Whippany.
Research continued through the 1930s in conjunction with Bell Telephone Laboratories (the successor to Western Electric’s research division), to use shorter wavelengths for radio transmission, this eventually led to the development of the microwave radio relay systems used to carry long distance telephone traffic in the latter half of the 20th century.

Control chart

control chartsAttribute chartCUSUM
In 1924, Bell Labs physicist Walter A. Shewhart proposed the control chart as a method to determine when a process was in a state of statistical control.
The control chart was invented by Walter A. Shewhart working for Bell Labs in the 1920s.

John Bertrand Johnson

John B. Johnson
In 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson, and Harry Nyquist provided the theoretical analysis; this is now termed Johnson noise.
In 1928, while at Bell Telephone Laboratories he published the journal paper "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors". In electronic systems, thermal noise (now also called Johnson noise) is the noise generated by thermal agitation of electrons in a conductor.

Homer Dudley

In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the Voder, the first electronic speech synthesizer, were developed and demonstrated by Homer Dudley, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
Homer W. Dudley (14 November 1896– 18 September 1980) was a pioneering electronic and acoustic engineer who created the first electronic voice synthesizer for Bell Labs in the 1930s and led the development of a method of sending secure voice transmissions during World War Two.

Gilbert Vernam

VernamVernam cipherGilbert S. Vernam
During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories.
Gilbert Sandford Vernam (3 April 1890 – 7 February 1960) was a Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1914 graduate and AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented an additive polyalphabetic stream cipher and later co-invented an automated one-time pad cipher.

Joseph Mauborgne

Joseph O. Mauborgne
During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the laboratories.
Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (February 26, 1881 – June 7, 1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs.

Breinigsville, Pennsylvania

Breinigsville
There also were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana; Columbus, Ohio; North Andover, Massachusetts; Allentown, Pennsylvania; Reading, Pennsylvania; and Breinigsville, Pennsylvania; Burlington, North Carolina (1950s–1970s, moved to Greensboro 1980s) and Westminster, Colorado.
The facility became Bell Labs' world headquarters for optoelectronics research.

Walter Houser Brattain

Walter BrattainBrattainBrattain, Walter
1956: John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the first transistors.
Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs who, along with fellow scientists John Bardeen and William Shockley, invented the point-contact transistor in December 1947.

Voder

the Voder
In 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. In 1937, the vocoder, an electronic speech compression device, or codec, and the Voder, the first electronic speech synthesizer, were developed and demonstrated by Homer Dudley, the Voder being demonstrated at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
The Bell Telephone Laboratory's Voder (from Voice Operating Demonstrator) was the first attempt to electronically synthesize human speech by breaking it down into its acoustic components.