Belle Époque

Belle EpoqueLa Belle ÉpoqueBelle-ÉpoqueLa Belle EpoqueAge of ProgressBeautiful Erabefore World War IBelle Époque beautyBelle Époque styleclosing decades of the nineteenth century
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Epoch") was a period of Western history.wikipedia
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Wilhelminism

WilhelmineWilhelmine PeriodWilhelmine Germany
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.
It had remarkable impact on the society, politics, culture, art and architecture of Germany and roughly coincided with the Belle Époque era of Western Europe.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
In the climate of the period, especially in Paris, France, the arts flourished.
Known as the Belle Époque, the turn of the century was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity and technological, scientific and cultural innovations.

Gilded Age

The Gilded AgeGilded EraGilded-Age
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.
The early half of the Gilded Age roughly coincided with the mid-Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France.

Paris

Paris, FranceParísParisian
In the climate of the period, especially in Paris, France, the arts flourished.
The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842), the Palais Garnier serving as an opera house (1875), the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), as well as the exuberant Belle Époque modernism of the Eiffel Tower (1889).

Folies Bergère

Folies BergereFolies-BergèreFolies Bergères
The Folies Bergère was another landmark venue.
The house was at the height of its fame and popularity from the 1890s' Belle Époque through the 1920s.

Moulin Rouge

Moulin-RougeFormidableFrench cabaret
The Moulin Rouge cabaret is a Paris landmark still open for business today.

Montmartre

Montmartre QuarterMontmarteButte Montmartre
Bohemian lifestyles gained a different glamour, pursued in the cabarets of Montmartre.
Near the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the twentieth, during the Belle Époque, many artists lived in, had studios, or worked in or around Montmartre, including Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Suzanne Valadon, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, and Vincent van Gogh.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.
The period was concurrent with the Gilded Age in the U.S. and Belle Époque in France and was also marked by economic inequality, and political repression.

Tout-Paris

Le Tout-Paris
Those who were able to benefit from the prosperity of the era were drawn towards new forms of light entertainment during the Belle Époque, and the Parisian bourgeoisie, or the successful industrialists called nouveau-riches, became increasingly influenced by the habits and fads of the city's elite social class, known popularly as Tout-Paris ("all of Paris", or "everyone in Paris").
The current use of the expression tout-Paris dates from the Belle Epoque era of 19th century Paris.

Domestic worker

servantdomestic servantdomestic service
The Paris Metro underground railway system joined the omnibus and streetcar in transporting the working population, including those servants who did not live in the wealthy centers of cities.
In Britain a highly developed system of domestic service peaked towards the close of the Victorian era, perhaps reaching its most complicated and rigidly structured state during the Edwardian period (a period known in the United States as the Gilded Age and in France as the Belle Époque), which reflected the limited social mobility before World War I.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Epoch") was a period of Western history.
Between the 1870s and 1914 (the so-called Beautiful Era, socioeconomically optimistic and innovative decades of the Second Industrial Revolution), the established colonial powers in Asia (United Kingdom, France, Netherlands) added to their empires also vast expanses of territory in the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia.

New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
Additionally, this era was one of massive overseas colonialism, known as the New Imperialism.
The years from 1871 to 1914 would be marked by an extremely unstable peace.

Vichy

Vichy, FranceSalle des AilesGerman occupation
After the mid-19th century, railways linked all the major cities of Europe to spa towns like Biarritz, Deauville, Vichy, Arcachon and the French Riviera.
After the Second French Empire, the Belle Époque marked the second large construction campaign in Vichy.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
It is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed, and those who had fought in the war were referred to as the Lost Generation.

Second Industrial Revolution

Industrial RevolutionTechnological RevolutionGerman industrialism
Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic (beginning 1870), it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, an apex of colonial empires, and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations.
Belgium during the Belle Époque showed the value of the railways for speeding the Second Industrial Revolution.

Golden Age

Age of Goldgolden age of prosperitygolden era
The Belle Époque was named in retrospect when it began to be considered a "Golden Age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I. The Belle Epoque was a period in which, according to historian R.R. Palmer, "European civilization achieved its greatest power in global politics, and also exerted its maximum influence upon peoples outside Europe."

Kingdom of Romania

RomaniaRomanian KingdomRomanian
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.

Giuseppe Amisani

Prominent artists in Paris during the Belle Époque included post-Impressionists such as Odilon Redon, Gustave Moreau, Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, Émile Bernard, Henri Rousseau, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (whose reputation improved substantially after his death), Giuseppe Amisani and a young Pablo Picasso.
Giuseppe Amisani (7 December 1881 – 8 September 1941) was an Italian portrait painter of the Belle Époque.

Fin de siècle

fin-de-sièclefin de sieclefin-de-siecle
Some of the artistic elite saw the Fin de siècle in a pessimistic light.

Georges Feydeau

FeydeauGeorge FeydeauChemin de Fer
Paris's popular bourgeois theatre was dominated by the light farces of Georges Feydeau and cabaret performances.
Georges Feydeau (8 December 1862 – 5 June 1921) was a French playwright of the era known as the Belle Époque.

Colette

Sidonie-Gabrielle ColetteColette, Sidonie-GabrielleFrench novelist
Colette shocked France with the publication of the sexually frank Claudine novel series, and other works.
Set mostly in Burgundy or Paris during the Belle Époque, her work focused on married life and sexuality.

Victorian era

VictorianVictorian-eraVictorian period
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.
The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.

Paris architecture of the Belle Époque

Paris architecture of the ''Belle ÉpoqueBelle Epoque styleBelle Époque
The architecture of Paris created during the Belle Époque, between 1871 and the beginning of the First World War in 1914, was notable for its variety of different styles, from neo-Byzantine and neo-Gothic to classicism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco.

Paris in the Belle Époque

Paris in the ''Belle ÉpoqueParis in the Belle EpoqueBelle Epoque
The expression Belle Époque ("beautiful era") came into use after the First World War; it was a nostalgic term for what seemed a simpler time of optimism, elegance and progress.

Jules Massenet

MassenetMassenet, JulesMassenet’s
Many Belle Époque composers working in Paris are still popular today: Igor Stravinsky, Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, Lili Boulanger, Jules Massenet, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Gabriel Fauré and his pupil, Maurice Ravel.
Although critics do not rank him among the handful of outstanding operatic geniuses such as Mozart, Verdi and Wagner, his operas are now widely accepted as well-crafted and intelligent products of the Belle Époque.