Benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlarged prostatebenign prostatic hypertrophybenign prostate hyperplasiaprostatic hypertrophyprostate enlargementBPHprostatic hyperplasiabenign large prostatesbenign prostatic enlargementlarge prostates
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate gland.wikipedia
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Urinary retention

urinary obstructionurine retentionRetention of urine
Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder control.
Blockage can be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, bladder stones, a cystocele, constipation, or tumors.

Finasteride

PropeciaProscarPropecia/Proscar
In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride. The 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride may also be used in men with BPH.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or hair loss in men.

5α-Reductase inhibitor

5-alpha-reductase inhibitor5α-reductase inhibitors5-alpha reductase inhibitor
In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.

Terazosin

blavinHytrin
In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride. They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil.
Terazosin, sold under the brand name Hytrin among others, is a medication used to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate and high blood pressure.

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in males with BPH, the condition does not increase the risk of prostate cancer.
A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms.

Pseudoephedrine

ContacPseudoephedrine hydrochloridepseudoephedrine tablets
Medications like pseudoephedrine, anticholinergics, and calcium channel blockers may worsen symptoms.
Pseudoephedrine is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, severe or uncontrolled hypertension, severe coronary artery disease, prostatic hypertrophy, hyperthyroidism, closed angle glaucoma, or by pregnant women.

Alpha blocker

Alpha blockersalphaalpha-blockers
In those with more significant symptoms, medications may include alpha blockers such as terazosin or 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride.
While there are limited clinical α-blocker uses, in which most α-blockers are used for hypertension or benign prostatic hyperplasia, α-blockers can be used to treat a few other diseases, such as Raynaud's disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), pheochromocytoma, and erectile dysfunction.

Prostate-specific antigen

prostate specific antigenPSAKLK3
Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in males with BPH, the condition does not increase the risk of prostate cancer.
PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Urination

urinateurinatingmicturition
BPH is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are divided into storage, voiding, and symptoms which occur after urination.
A systematic review meta-analysis of the effect of voiding position on the quality of urination found that in elderly males with benign prostate hyperplasia, the sitting position was superior compared with the standing.

Lower urinary tract symptoms

LUTSlower urinary tract obstructionlower urinary tract symptom
BPH is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are divided into storage, voiding, and symptoms which occur after urination.

Dihydrotestosterone

5α-DihydrotestosteroneDHT17-hydroxyandrostan-3-one
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a metabolite of testosterone, is a critical mediator of prostatic growth.
In addition to normal biological functions, DHT also plays an important causative role in a number of androgen-dependent conditions including hair conditions like hirsutism (excessive facial/body hair growth) and pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia or pattern baldness) and prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer.

Rectal examination

digital rectal examinationdigital rectal examanal probe
An enlarged prostate gland on rectal examination that is symmetric and smooth supports a diagnosis of BPH.

Dysuria

painful urinationburning with urinationpain with urination
These symptoms may be accompanied by bladder pain or pain while urinating, called dysuria.

Urinary bladder

bladderfundusintravesical
The underlying mechanism involves the prostate pressing on the urethra thereby making it difficult to pass urine out of the bladder.
Males with an enlarged prostate urinate more frequently.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

chronic pelvic pain syndromeChronic nonbacterial prostatitischronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS)
The differential diagnosis for LUTS is broad and includes various medical conditions, neurologic disorders, and other diseases of the bladder, urethra, and prostate such as bladder cancer, urinary tract infection, urethral stricture, urethral calculi (stones), chronic prostatitis, and prostate cancer.
Diagnosis involves ruling out other potential causes of the symptoms such as bacterial prostatitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and cancer.

International Prostate Symptom Score

Validated questionnaires such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI), the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), and more recently the UWIN score (urgency, weak stream, incomplete emptying, and nocturia) are useful aids to making the diagnosis of BPH and quantifying the severity of symptoms.
The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is an eight-question written screening tool used to screen for, rapidly diagnose, track the symptoms of, and suggest management of the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Prostate cancer screening

PSA screeningscreeningPCa screening
However, checking blood PSA levels for prostate cancer screening is controversial and not necessarily indicated in every evaluation for BPH.
PSA is not a unique indicator of prostate cancer, but may also detect prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Tamsulosin

Flomax
They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil.
Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Flomax among others, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), chronic prostatitis, and to help with the passage of kidney stones.

Doxazosin

Cardura
They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil.
Doxazosin, sold under the brand names Cardura among others, is a medication used to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate and high blood pressure.

Alfuzosin

UroxatralXatral
They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil.
It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

5α-Reductase

5α-reduced5-alpha reductase5-alpha-reductase
DHT is synthesized in the prostate from circulating testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5α-reductase, type 2.
5α-reductase inhibitor drugs are used in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia), and hormone replacement therapy for transgender women.

Dutasteride

Avodart
The 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride may also be used in men with BPH.
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication primarily used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate.

Alpha-1 blocker

α 1 blockerα 1 α 1 -blocker
Selective α 1 -blockers are the most common choice for initial therapy.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland.

Silodosin

They include alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, and naftopidil.
Silodosin (trade names Rapaflo (USA), Silodyx (Europe and South Africa), Rapilif (India), Silodal (India), Sildoo(India) Urief (Japan), Thrupas (South Korea),Flopadex (Egypt), Urorec' (Russia) is a medication for the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Tadalafil

Cialissexual enhancement supplementLilly Icos
Tadalafil was considered then rejected by NICE in the UK for the treatment of symptoms associated with BPH.
Tadalafil, sold under the brand name Cialis among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension.