Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepinebenzodiazapinebenzodiazepine receptor ligandsFunctional group
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.wikipedia
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Diazepam

valiumCANAdiazapam
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium). Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful. Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended. In a hospital environment, intravenous clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam are first-line choices.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

Chlordiazepoxide

Libriumchlordiazepoxide dibudinate
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.

Leo Sternbach

Leo H. Sternbach
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
Leo Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with discovering benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Example: benzodiazepines, barbiturates

Hoffmann-La Roche

RocheRoche PharmaceuticalsHoffman-La Roche
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
In 1957 it introduced the class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (with Valium and Rohypnol being the best known members).

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedating
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Benzodiazepines are also associated with increased risk of suicide.
Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
Long-term use is controversial because of concerns about decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, withdrawal, and an increased risk of dementia.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

GABAA receptor

GABA A receptorGABA A GABA A receptors
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
These allosteric sites are the targets of various other drugs, including the benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids, barbiturates, alcohol (ethanol), inhaled anaesthetics, and picrotoxin, among others.

Physical dependence

Physicaldependencedrug dependency
Long-term use is controversial because of concerns about decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, withdrawal, and an increased risk of dementia.
Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They are in the family of drugs commonly known as minor tranquilizers.
There are concerns that some GABAergics, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, may have an anxiogenic effect if used over long periods of time.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.
Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety), as well as withdrawal from drugs of abuse.

Anterograde amnesia

anterogradeamnesia, anterogradeamnesia
High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation.
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballs
However, they are less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, and death rarely results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken.
They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significantly lower risk of addiction and overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates; by the late 1970s benzodiazepines emerged as the safer drug.

Benzodiazepine dependence

dependencebenzodiazepine dependentan addiction to the sleeping drug Benzodiazepine
However, this advantage is offset by the possibility of developing benzodiazepine dependence.
In the case of benzodiazepine dependence, however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
Other skeletal muscle relaxants of that type used around the world come from a number of drug categories and other drugs used primarily for this indication include orphenadrine (anticholinergic), chlorzoxazone, tizanidine (clonidine relative), diazepam, tetrazepam and other benzodiazepines, mephenoxalone, methocarbamol, dantrolene, baclofen, Drugs once but no longer or very rarely used to relax skeletal muscles include meprobamate, barbiturates, methaqualone, glutethimide and the like; some subcategories of opioids have muscle relaxant properties, and some are marketed in combination drugs with skeletal and/or smooth muscle relaxants such as whole opium products, some ketobemidone, piritramide and fentanyl preparations and Equagesic.

Substance abuse

drug abuseabusedrug use
Benzodiazepines are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse.
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines like methamphetamine.

Alprazolam

XanaxAlprazolam (Xanax)
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.
Alprazolam, sold as the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful. In a hospital environment, intravenous clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam are first-line choices.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

Bromazepam

bromazepanlexotanPascalium
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.
Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium, Lexatin and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

Sleep induction

sleep-inducingwarm milkinduce sleep
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
If they are to be taken, the preferred choices are benzodiazepines with short-lasting effects such as temazepam or the newer Z-medicines such as zopiclone.

Clobazam

Clobazam is widely used by specialist epilepsy clinics worldwide and clonazepam is popular in the Netherlands, Belgium and France.
Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob ) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.

Clonazepam

Klonopinclonazopam
In a hospital environment, intravenous clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam are first-line choices.
It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class.