Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo1,4-benzodiazepinebenzodiazapinebenzodiazepine receptor ligandsbenzosFunctional group
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.wikipedia
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Diazepam

ValiumDizacCANA
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium). Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful. Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

Chlordiazepoxide

LibriumLimbitrolA-Poxide
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium among others, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.

Leo Sternbach

Leo H. SternbachLeo Henryk Sternbach
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
Leo Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was an American chemist who is credited with first synthesizing benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Hoffmann-La Roche

RocheHoffmann–La RocheHoffman-La Roche
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).
In 1957 it introduced the class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (with Valium and Rohypnol being the best known members).

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedated
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia.
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.

GABAA receptor

GABA A receptorGABA A GABA A receptors
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
These allosteric sites are the targets of various other drugs, including the benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids, barbiturates, alcohol (ethanol), inhaled anaesthetics, and picrotoxin, among others.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
Long-term use is controversial because of concerns about decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, withdrawal, and an increased risk of dementia.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of signs and symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.
Anxiety is also associated with drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety).

Anxiolytic

anxiolysisanti-anxietyanxiolytics
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They are in the family of drugs commonly known as minor tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia.
There are concerns that some GABAergics, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, may have an anxiogenic effect if used over long periods of time.

Physical dependence

dependencedrug dependencyphysical
Long-term use is controversial because of concerns about decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, withdrawal, and an increased risk of dementia.
Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
When combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as alcoholic drinks and opioids, the potential for toxicity and fatal overdose increases.
An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs like benzodiazepines commonly results in death from respiratory depression.

Anterograde amnesia

anterogradeamnesia, anterogradeamnesia
High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation. Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia.
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalsleeping pill
However, they are less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, and death rarely results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken.
They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines ("Z-drugs") in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significantly lower risk of addiction and overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia.
During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates; by the late 1970s benzodiazepines emerged as the safer drug.

Benzodiazepine dependence

dependencean addiction to the sleeping drug BenzodiazepineBarbiturate type dependence
However, this advantage is offset by the possibility of developing benzodiazepine dependence.
In the case of benzodiazepine dependence, however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
Other skeletal muscle relaxants of that type used around the world come from a number of drug categories and other drugs used primarily for this indication include orphenadrine (anticholinergic), chlorzoxazone, tizanidine (clonidine relative), diazepam, tetrazepam and other benzodiazepines, mephenoxalone, methocarbamol, dantrolene, baclofen, Drugs once but no longer or very rarely used to relax skeletal muscles include meprobamate, barbiturates, methaqualone, glutethimide and the like; some subcategories of opioids have muscle relaxant properties, and some are marketed in combination drugs with skeletal and/or smooth muscle relaxants such as whole opium products, some ketobemidone, piritramide and fentanyl preparations and Equagesic.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
Benzodiazepines are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse.
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, methaqualone, and opioids.

Alprazolam

XanaxCalmaxXanny
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.
Alprazolam, sold under the trade name Xanax, among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

Bromazepam

Lexotanilbromazepanlexotan
Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.
Bromazepam, sold under many brand names, is a benzodiazepine.

Psycholeptic

psycholeptics
Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, seizures, anxiety disorders, panic, agitation, and insomnia.
Such medications include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, phenothiazines, opiates/opioids, carbamates, ethanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, cannabinoids (in some classifications), some antidepressants, neuroleptics, and some anticonvulsants.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
When combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as alcoholic drinks and opioids, the potential for toxicity and fatal overdose increases.
Other depressants can include drugs like Xanax (a benzodiazepine) and a number of opiates.

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.
Nitrazepam, sold under the brand name Mogadon among others, is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

Midazolam

VersedDormicumMidazolam hydrochloride
In the community, intravenous administration is not practical and so rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam are used, with a preference for midazolam as its administration is easier and more socially acceptable.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.