Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
A box of Mogadon pills containing 5mg of Nitrazepam.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Nitrazepam synthesis:
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

Nitrazepam, sold under the brand name Mogadon among others, is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

- Nitrazepam

Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.

- Benzodiazepine
Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

8 related topics

Alpha

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.

Hypnotic

To induce sleep (or surgical anesthesia ) and to treat insomnia (sleeplessness).

To induce sleep (or surgical anesthesia ) and to treat insomnia (sleeplessness).

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.
Le Vieux Séducteur by .
(A corrupt old man tries to seduce a woman by urging her to take a hypnotic draught in her drink)

Among individuals with sleep disorders, 13.7% are taking or prescribed nonbenzodiazepines, while 10.8% are taking benzodiazepines, as of 2010, in the USA.

Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.

US yearly overdose deaths involving benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine overdose

US yearly overdose deaths involving benzodiazepines.
The top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids in the US. The bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist that can reverse the effects of benzodiazepines, although its use following benzodiazepine overdose is controversial.

Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

Nitrazepam and flunitrazepam accounted for 90% of benzodiazepine implicated suicides.

Clonazepam

Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Brand name clonazepam tablets
Klonopin 0.5 mg tablet
Klonopin 1 mg tablet
Klonopin 2 mg tablet
Clonazepam orally disintegrating tablet, 0.25 mg

It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class.

Clonazepam is a 2'-chlorinated derivative of nitrazepam, which increases its potency due to electron-attracting effect of the halogen in the ortho-position.

0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam

Lorazepam

0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam
1987 advertisement. "In a world where certainties are few...no wonder Ativan is prescribed by so many caring clinicians."

Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

Others include diazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.

Some features of the human circadian (24-hour) biological clock. Click to enlarge

Somnolence

State of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

State of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

Some features of the human circadian (24-hour) biological clock. Click to enlarge

Tranquilizers – such as zopiclone (Zimovane), or the benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) or nitrazepam (Mogadon) and the barbiturates, such as amobarbital (Amytal) or secobarbital (Seconal)

Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.

Temazepam

Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.
Generic temazepam 10 mg tablets
Prepn: S. C. Bell, (1965 to Am. Home. Prod.). See also: E. Reeder et al., and  (1967, 1968, both to Hoffmann-La Roche).
Apro temazepam
Normison (temazepam) 10 mg tablets

Temazepam (sold under the brand names Restoril among others) is a medication of the benzodiazepine class used to treat insomnia.

Patients who were treated in the hospital with temazepam or nitrazepam have continued taking these after leaving the hospital.

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.

Nimetazepam

Zolpidem tartrate, a common but potent sedative-hypnotic drug. Used for severe insomnia.

Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin and Lavol) is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

Hypnotic benzodiazepines estazolam and nitrazepam are used more frequently than nimetazepam for this purpose.

Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.

Flunitrazepam

Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.
Hypnodorm 1 mg flunitrazepam tablets, Australia
Rohypnol
Icelandic Flunitrazepam

Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is a benzodiazepine used to treat severe insomnia and assist with anesthesia.

It is the fluorinated N-methyl derivative of nitrazepam.