A report on Berlin

Map of Berlin in 1688
Berlin Cathedral (left) and Berlin Palace (right), 1900
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years.
Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The coat of arms proposed in the state contract
Satellite image of Berlin
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes.
Aerial photo over central Berlin showing City West, Potsdamer Platz, Alexanderplatz and the Tiergarten
Panorama of the Gendarmenmarkt, showing the Konzerthaus Berlin, flanked by the German Church (left) and French Church (right)
The Berlin Cathedral at Museum Island
Charlottenburg Palace
Hackesche Höfe
Breitscheidplatz with Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church is the center of City West.
Berlin's population, 1880–2012
Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall), seat of the Senate and Mayor of Berlin
Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods
Berlin is a UNESCO "City of Design" and recognized for its creative industries and startup ecosystem.
Deutsche Bahn, the world's second-largest transport company, is headquartered in Berlin.
The European Film Academy (logo pictured) was founded in Berlin.
The new building of Axel Springer SE which is heardquarted in Berlin
Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe.
The Berlin U-Bahn (Metro) at Heidelberger Platz station
Berlin Brandenburg Airport
Flights departing from Berlin serve 163 destinations around the globe.
Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg
Heizkraftwerk Mitte power plant
The Charité university hospital
Café customers in Berlin Mitte using Wi-Fi devices
The Humboldt University of Berlin is affiliated with 57 Nobel Prize winners.
The Free University is one of Germany's eleven "Universities of Excellence".
The WISTA Science and Technology Park in Adlershof is home to several innovative businesses and research institutes.
The Alte Nationalgalerie is part of the Museum Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The alternative Holzmarkt, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
The Jewish Museum presents two millennia of German–Jewish history.
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum
The Berlinale is the largest international spectator film festival.
The French Cathedral during the annual Festival of Lights
Hanukkah festival at the Brandenburg Gate
Sir Simon Rattle conducting the renowned Berlin Philharmonic
The Elephant Gate at the Berlin Zoo
The Victory Column in Tiergarten
The Olympiastadion hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.
The Berlin Marathon is the world record course.
The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany
The Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag
Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany
Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany
Headquarters of the Federal Intelligence Service

Capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.

- Berlin

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Overall

West Berlin

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West Berlin in Red
West Berlin in Red
The four occupation sectors of Berlin. West Berlin is in light blue, dark blue, and purple, with several exclaves shown. Borough borders are as of 1987.
West Berlin in Red
Map of West and East Berlin, border crossings, metro networks (interactive map)
In 1969 U.S. military vehicles pass through the residential district of Zehlendorf, a routine reminder that West Berlin was still legally occupied by the Western Allies of World War II
West Berlin auxiliary identity card, bearing the words "The holder of this identity card is a German national" in German, French and English
President John F. Kennedy addressing the people of West Berlin from Rathaus Schöneberg on Rudolf-Wilde-Platz (today's John-F.-Kennedy-Platz), 26 June 1963
President Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate giving the "Tear down this wall!" speech in 1987
Map of divided Berlin, indicating by broken lines at Berlin's western border the land swap decided by the Allies. Five of the larger of West Berlin's originally twelve exclaves (Steinstücken, Laßzinswiesen, Falkenhagener Wiesen, Wüste Mark, Kienhorst ) are shown.
East German border crossing Potsdam-Drewitz on 31 March 1972: Applying eastern lead seals to western trucks, entering the transit route, in order to prevent potential Eastern German escapees from hiding in the cargo space
Eastern refugees boarding an Avro York at Tempelhof Airport to fly into West Germany, 1953
The only three permissible West Berlin Air Corridors
Map showing location of the Berlin Wall and transit points
An eastern water cannon vehicle directed at western protesters in front of the Brandenburg Gate, August 1961
Western police awaiting an eastern border controller at the opening of a new pedestrian border crossing. View into the vaults of Oberbaumbrücke, 21 December 1963.
West Berliners entering East Berlin at the border crossing Chausseestraße on 28 December 1963 after having been banned from visiting the eastern sector for more than two years
East Berliners, just having passed the now-open eastern checkpoint Bornholmer Straße, passing Bösebrücke into the French sector of Berlin on 18 November 1989

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or West-Berlin, ) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

Germany

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Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

The Kingdom of East Francia in 843
Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer
The German Confederation in 1815
Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II
American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.
The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background
Physical map of Germany
Berchtesgaden National Park
German TPz Fuchs armoured personnel carrier
Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.
An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line
Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria
Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most renowned.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.
A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer
The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales.
Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio
Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer
The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
Germany hosted the 2022 G7 summit at Schloss Elmau, Bavaria.

The nation's capital and largest city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the Wall in 1986. The Wall's "death strip", on the east side of the Wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).

Berlin Wall

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View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the Wall in 1986. The Wall's "death strip", on the east side of the Wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the Wall in 1986. The Wall's "death strip", on the east side of the Wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).
Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)
East German Combat Groups of the Working Class close the border on 13 August 1961 in preparation for the Berlin Wall construction.
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961.
US President John F. Kennedy visiting the Berlin Wall on 26 June 1963
Top of the Wall with a smooth pipe, intended to make it more difficult to scale. The areas just outside the wall, including the sidewalk, are de jure East Berlin territory (1984).
This section of the Wall's "death strip" featured Czech hedgehogs, a guard tower and a cleared area, 1977.
A You Are Leaving sign at a border of the American sector
Position and course of the Berlin Wall and its border control checkpoints (1989).
Travel orders to go to Berlin as used by U.S. forces in the 1980s.
East Berlin "death strip" of the Berlin Wall, as seen from the Axel Springer AG Building, 1984
NVA soldier Conrad Schumann defecting to West Berlin during the Wall's early days in 1961.
October 7, 1961. Four-year-old Michael Finder of East Germany is tossed by his father into a net held by residents across the border in West Berlin. The father, Willy Finder, then prepares to make the jump himself.
Memorial to the Victims of the Wall, with graffiti, 1982.
East German border guard at Berlin Wall, July 1988
Remaining stretch of the Wall near Ostbahnhof in Friedrichshain called East Side Gallery, August 2006
Line indicating where the inner part of the wall once stood on Leipziger Platz, just off Potsdamer Platz, in 2015
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Segment of the Berlin wall in the Sanctuary of Fátima, Portugal
The Day the Wall Came Down (1996) by Veryl Goodnight, a statue depicting horses leaping over actual pieces of the Berlin Wall
Remains of the Wall adjacent to the Topography of Terror, August 2007
A memorial of over a thousand crosses and a segment of the Wall for those who died trying to cross. The memorial stood for ten months in 2004 and 2005 before it was removed.
A "BERLINER MAUER 1961–1989" plaque near Checkpoint Charlie signifying where the Wall stood
Display of two sections of the Wall and a "You are leaving" sign at Fort Gordon, Georgia, USA
The Berlin Wall from the East Berlin side, 1967
A sign reading "Until we see each other again in the capital of the GDR"
Czech hedgehog anti-tank obstacles and the Wall
An exhibition dedicated to the 25th anniversary to the Berlin Wall destruction was located at Potsdamer Platz Arkaden
A hole in the Berlin wall, 2019

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer, ) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989 as well as encircling and separating West Berlin from East German territory.

Brandenburg

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State in the northeast of Germany bordering the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony, as well as the country of Poland.

State in the northeast of Germany bordering the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony, as well as the country of Poland.

Eisenhardt Castle in Bad Belzig
Brandenburg's victory over Swedish forces at the Battle of Fehrbellin in 1675
The Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam, the former summer palace of Frederick the Great, is today a World Heritage Site.
The Province of Brandenburg, as superimposed on modern borders
Glienicke Bridge, which connected East Germany to the American sector of West Berlin, became known for the exchange of captured spies.
The coat of arms proposed in the state contract.
The Spreewald, a biosphere reserve by UNESCO
Population density in Berlin-Brandenburg in 2015
Administrative divisions of Brandenburg
The Brandenburg parliament building (Landtag) in Potsdam
Dietmar Woidke, current Minister-President of Brandenburg
The University of Potsdam
Spreewald gherkins

Brandenburg surrounds the national capital and city-state of Berlin, and together they form the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany with a total population of about 6.2 million.

Potsdam

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Capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg.

Capital and largest city of the German state of Brandenburg.

The Templiner See south of Potsdam
Stadtteile (boroughs) of Potsdam
Document from the Holy Roman Empire in 993 mentioning Poztupimi
New Palace today
Stadtschloss Potsdam in 1773
Voltaire at the residence of Frederick II in Potsdam. Partial view of an engraving by Pierre Charles Baquoy, after N. A. Monsiau
Bond of Potsdam, issued 22 May 1852
Potsdam Conference in 1945 with Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin
The Glienicke Bridge, used for exchanging spies during the Cold War
People at the Fanfarenzug
Potsdamer Stadthaus, the city hall
The Kaiserbahnof building
The University of Potsdam
The Einstein Tower was built in 1921 to house research on the theory of relativity.
The historical centre of Potsdam
Sanssouci Palace
Cecilienhof palace
St. Nicholas' Church on the Alter Markt
The old town (main shopping street, Brandenburger Straße)
Potsdam's Brandenburg Gate
Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Frederick III
The Chinese House in Sanssouci Park
Glienicke Hunting Lodge, as seen from Babelsberg Park
The Marmorpalais in New Garden
Sanssouci: the Orangery Palace
The Belvedere auf dem Klausberg
Babelsberg Palace
Results of the second round of the 2018 mayoral election.
Winning party by district in the 2019 city council election.

It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region.

The districts and neighbourhoods of Berlin

Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin

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The districts and neighbourhoods of Berlin
The 12 Berlin Bezirke (districts) - following the 2001 district reform
Twenty-three former boroughs (1990–2000)
The mural crown of the coats of arms of Berliner Bezirke

Berlin is both a city and one of Germany’s federated states (city state).

Bonn

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City on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

City on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

The Sterntor, originally built around 1244, is a gate reconstructed on the remnants of the medieval city wall.
The Altes Rathaus (old town hall) as seen from the central market square. It was built in 1737 in the Rococo style.
Founded in 1818, the University of Bonn counts Nietzsche, Marx, and Adenauer among its alumni.
French president Charles de Gaulle on state visit to Bonn (1962), the capital of West Germany until German reunification.
Between 1950 and 1994, Villa Hammerschmidt was the primary official residence of the President of Germany. Today it serves as the President's secondary residence.
Ashok-Alexander Sridharan (CDU) was the mayor of Bonn from 2015 until 2020.
Results of the 2020 city council election.
Erected in the 11th and 13th century, the Roman Catholic Minster of Bonn is one of Germany's oldest churches.
Beethovenhalle
The Bundeskunsthalle focuses on the cultural heritage outside of Germany or Europe, at the crossroads of culture, the arts, and science.
The Museum Koenig is Bonn's natural history museum.
Drachenburg Castle in the Siebengebirge south of Bonn
The international airport of Cologne and Bonn (IATA: CGN) is Germany's seventh-largest.
The underground Stadtbahn station at Bonn Hauptbahnhof, Bonn's busiest railway station
Road network adjacent to Bonn
Being one of the biggest employers in the region, Deutsche Post DHL have their headquarters in Bonn.
Offices of DFG, an important research funding organisation
University of Bonn Electoral Palace
Population development since 1620
Deutsche Telekom head office
Ludwig van Beethoven
Moses Hess
Alexander Koenig
Eduard Krebsbach
Klaus Barbie
Heide Simonis
Results of the second round of the 2020 mayoral election.

However, the Bundestag, seated in Bonn's Bundeshaus, affirmed Berlin's status as the German capital.

Old Town and Saint Nikolai Church

Spandau

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Old Town and Saint Nikolai Church
Subdivisions of Spandau

Spandau is the westernmost of the 12 boroughs (Bezirke) of Berlin, situated at the confluence of the Havel and Spree rivers and extending along the western bank of the Havel.

Kingdom of Prussia

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German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

The Kingdom of Prussia within the German Empire between 1871 and 1918
The Prussian Crown Jewels, Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin
The Kingdom of Prussia within the German Empire between 1871 and 1918
Prussian territorial acquisitions in the 18th century
The Kingdom of Prussia within the German Empire between 1871 and 1918
Attack of the Prussian infantry at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in 1745
The three partitions of Poland (the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth). The Russian Partition (red), the Austrian Partition (green), and the Prussian Partition (blue)
Prussia (orange) and its territories lost after the War of the Fourth Coalition (other colours)
Frederick William III of Prussia, Alexander I of Russia and Francis I of Austria after the Battle of Leipzig, 1813
Expansion of Prussia, 1807–1871
King Wilhelm I on a black horse with his suite, Bismarck, Moltke, and others, watching the Battle of Königgrätz
The Prussian King's Crown (Hohenzollern Castle Collection)
The ten provinces of the Kingdom of Prussia, after the Congress of Vienna. The other member states of the German Confederation are shown in beige. The Canton of Neuchâtel in the south-west was under Prussian administration until 1848.
Current states of Germany (shown in dark green) that are completely or mostly situated inside the old borders of Imperial Germany's Kingdom of Prussia

Its capital was Berlin.

West Germany

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Common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 October 1990.

Common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 October 1990.

Territory of West Germany (dark green) and the associated territory of West Berlin (light green) from the accession of the Saar on 1 January 1957 to German reunification on 3 October 1990
Occupation zone borders in Germany, early 1946. The territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, under Polish and Soviet administration/annexation, are shown in cream, as is the detached Saar Protectorate (France). Bremen was an American enclave within the British zone. Berlin was a four-power area within the Soviet zone.
Territory of West Germany (dark green) and the associated territory of West Berlin (light green) from the accession of the Saar on 1 January 1957 to German reunification on 3 October 1990
Dutch tanks, pictured in West Germany in 1956 as part of the large British and American-led foreign military presence in the country
West Germany (blue) and West Berlin (yellow) after the accession of the Saarland in 1957 and before the five Länder from the GDR and East Berlin joined in 1990
Konrad Adenauer
Rudi Dutschke, student leader
Logo of the Red Army Faction
A school in Lüneburg with an extension built in the 1970s
Protest in Bonn against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in West Germany, 1981
Entrance to the Bundeswehr University in Munich
The Volkswagen Beetle – for many years the most successful car in the world – on the assembly line in Wolfsburg factory, 1973
Willy Brandt and Willi Stoph in Erfurt, 1970, the first time a Chancellor met a GDR prime minister
The Brandt cabinet of 1969 on the steps of President Heinemanns's residence in Bonn, the Villa Hammerschmidt
Helmut Kohl in 1987
Postage stamps commemorating the 1974 World Cup held in West Germany

Its five post-war states (Länder) were reconstituted, along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land.