Berlin Blockade

Berlin AirliftBerlin Air LiftblockadeBerlin CrisisOperation Vittlesblockade of BerlinSoviet blockade of Berlinblockaded Berlin1949airlift
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.wikipedia
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Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
The Berlin Blockade (1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War.

West Berlin

West-BerlinWestBerlin
The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin.
In 1948, the Soviets tried to force the Western Allies out of Berlin by imposing a land blockade on the western sectors—the Berlin Blockade.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control.
However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory.

Deutsche Mark

DMGerman markmarks
The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin.
The Soviets promptly cut off all road, rail and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade.

Lucius D. Clay

Lucius ClayClayGeneral Clay
In 1946 the Soviets stopped delivering agricultural goods from their zone in eastern Germany, and the American commander, Lucius D. Clay, responded by stopping shipments of dismantled industries from western Germany to the Soviet Union.
Clay orchestrated the Berlin Airlift (1948–1949) when the USSR blockaded West Berlin.

United States Air Force

U.S. Air ForceAir ForceUSAF
Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the French Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and the South African Air Force flew over 200,000 sorties in one year, providing to the West Berliners necessities such as fuel and food, with the original plan being to lift 3,475 tons of supplies daily.

South African Air Force

SAAFAir ForceSouth African
Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the French Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and the South African Air Force flew over 200,000 sorties in one year, providing to the West Berliners necessities such as fuel and food, with the original plan being to lift 3,475 tons of supplies daily.
Post-war, the SAAF also took part in the Berlin airlift of 1948 with 20 aircrews flying Royal Air Force Dakotas.

West Germany

West GermanFederal Republic of GermanyGermany
The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the competing ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe and played a major role in drawing West Germany into the NATO orbit several years later in 1955.
West Berlin was completely surrounded by East German territory and had suffered a Soviet blockade in 1948–49, which was overcome by the Berlin airlift.

Curtis LeMay

Curtis E. LeMayGeneral Curtis LeMayCurtis Emerson LeMay
Commander of United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) General Curtis LeMay reportedly favoured an aggressive response to the blockade, in which his B-29s with fighter escort would approach Soviet air bases while ground troops attempted to reach Berlin; Washington vetoed the plan.
After the war, he was assigned to command USAF Europe and coordinated the Berlin airlift.

Avro York

YorkAvro York C.1Yorks
It could fly additional aircraft in from Britain in a single hop, bringing the RAF fleet to about 150 Dakotas and 40 of the larger Avro Yorks with a 10-ton payload.
In military service, large numbers of Yorks were used for air-supply missions during the Berlin Blockade 1948–49.

1948 Gatow air disaster

Gatow air disasterBEA Vickers 610 Viking 1B (registration: G-AIVP)British European Airways Vickers VC.1 Viking / Soviet Air Force Yakovlev Yak-3 fighter
The Gatow air disaster exacerbated tensions between the Soviets and the other allied powers.
The disaster resulted in a diplomatic standoff between the United Kingdom and United States on one hand, and the Soviet Union on the other, and intensified distrust leading up to the Berlin Blockade in the early years of the Cold War.

Allied-occupied Germany

GermanyBritish occupation zoneoccupied Germany
During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control.
The complete breakdown of east-west allied cooperation and joint administration in Germany became clear with the Soviet imposition of the Berlin Blockade that was enforced from June 1948 to May 1949.

RAF Gatow

GatowBerlin-GatowGatow airfield
On 5 April, a Soviet Air Force Yakovlev Yak-3 fighter collided with a British European Airways Vickers Viking 1B airliner near RAF Gatow airfield, killing all aboard both aircraft.
Along with the American airfield of Tempelhof and the French airfield of Tegel, RAF Gatow played a key role in the Berlin airlift of 1948.

RAAF Squadron Berlin Air Lift

Operation Pelicantake part in the Berlin AirliftBerlin Air Lift
The Australian contribution to the airlift, begun in September 1948, was designated "Operation Pelican."
In mid-1948, the Soviet Union placed the French-, British- and American sectors of the occupied city of Berlin under blockade following a dispute with the western powers, cutting off the city's land supply routes.

Reginald Waite

Reginald Newnham WaiteRex Waite
During the Little Lift in April 1948, British Air Commodore Reginald Waite had calculated the resources required to support the entire city.
In 1948, while Waite was Head of Disbandment at the headquarters of the Allied Control Commission, he suggested that the Berlin Blockade could be broken by an airlift.

East Berlin

BerlinEastEast-Berlin
The Communist press in East Berlin ridiculed the project.
In June 1948, all railways and roads leading to West Berlin were blocked, and East Berliners were not allowed to emigrate.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism-LeninismMarxist-LeninistMarxist–Leninist
In the eastern zone, the Soviet authorities forcibly unified the Communist Party of Germany and Social Democratic Party (SPD) in the Socialist Unity Party ("SED"), claiming at the time that it would not have a Marxist–Leninist or Soviet orientation.
The events that precipitated the Cold War in Europe were the Soviet and Yugoslav, Bulgarian and Albanian military interventions to the Greek Civil War (1944–1949), in behalf of the Greek Communists; and the Berlin Blockade (1948–1949) by the Soviet Union.

Joseph Stalin

StalinJosef StalinJosif Stalin
In a June 1945 meeting, Stalin informed German communist leaders that he expected to slowly undermine the British position within their occupation zone, that the United States would withdraw within a year or two and that nothing would then stand in the way of a united Germany under communist control within the Soviet orbit.
When the US and UK remained opposed to this, Stalin sought to force their hand by blockading Berlin in June 1948.

Lucius D. Clay Kaserne

Wiesbaden Air BaseWiesbaden Army AirfieldWiesbaden AB
On 24 June 1948 LeMay appointed Brigadier General Joseph Smith, headquarters commandant for USAFE at Camp Lindsey, as the Provisional Task Force Commander of the airlift.
In 1948 the facility served as a hub supporting the Berlin Airlift with around-the-clock flights from Wiesbaden to Tempelhof Airport.

British European Airways

BEABritish European Airways CorporationB.E.A.
On 5 April, a Soviet Air Force Yakovlev Yak-3 fighter collided with a British European Airways Vickers Viking 1B airliner near RAF Gatow airfield, killing all aboard both aircraft.
During the 1948–49 Berlin Airlift, BEA co-ordinated the operations of the 25 British airlines that participated in the Airlift's Operation Plainfare.

Allied Control Council

Four PowersAlliedAllied Control Commission
The Allied Control Council (ACC) met for the last time on 20 March 1948, when Vasily Sokolovsky demanded to know the outcome of the London Conference and, on being told by negotiators that they had not yet heard the final results from their governments, he said, "I see no sense in continuing this meeting, and I declare it adjourned."
As the Control Council could only act with the agreement of all four members, this move basically shut down the institution, while the Cold War reached an early high point during the Soviet blockade of Berlin of 1948-49.

United States Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa

United States Air Forces in EuropeUSAFEUnited States Air Forces Europe
Commander of United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) General Curtis LeMay reportedly favoured an aggressive response to the blockade, in which his B-29s with fighter escort would approach Soviet air bases while ground troops attempted to reach Berlin; Washington vetoed the plan.
The next day, 24 June the Soviet Union blocked western all road, rail and barge access through the Soviet occupation zone of Germany to the three Western-held sectors of Berlin, beginning the Berlin Blockade.

Berlin Tegel Airport

Tegel AirportBerlin TegelBerlin-Tegel
The Tegel airfield was subsequently developed into Berlin Tegel Airport.
Plans for converting the area into allotment gardens were shelved due to the Berlin Blockade, which began on 24 June 1948.

Raisin Bombers

Candy BomberRaisin BomberCandy Bombers
German children christened the candy-dropping aircraft "raisin bombers."
Raisin Bombers (Rosinenbomber) or (in US English) "Candy Bombers" were colloquial terms Berliners gave to the Western Allied (American and British) transport aircraft which brought in supplies by airlift to West Berlin during the Soviet Berlin Blockade in 1948/1949.

Ernst Reuter

Ernst Reuter (whom sources from the time sometimes identify by his "party name" as Ernst Friesland)Ernst Reuter ArchivesReuter
Clay called in Ernst Reuter, the mayor-elect of Berlin, accompanied by his aide, Willy Brandt.
During the Soviet-imposed Berlin Blockade (1948/49), the western part of city was sustained by the Berlin airlift that was established by the American Military Governor, Lucius D. Clay.