Berry (botany)

Redcurrants, a type of berry derived from a simple (one-carpel) inferior ovary
Kiwifruit, a berry derived from a compound (many carpellate) superior ovary
Diagram of a grape berry, showing the pericarp and its layers
Coffee cherries (Coffea arabica) – described as drupes or berries
Cross-section of a cucumber pepo (Cucumis sativus)
Yew "berries" are female conifer cones.
Some fruits classified as bacca (berries) by Gaertner (De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum, Tab. 28)
Flowers and berries of Cestrum tomentosum
A type of sapote fruit displayed for sale (Quararibea cordata)
Bottle gourd or calabash used to contain palm wine in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mandarins, here served in a Hong Kong restaurant, are among the oldest cultivated citrus fruits.
Four banana and plantain cultivars

Fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary.

- Berry (botany)

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Plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae.

Closeup of flower
A developing fruit
Long purple eggplants
Varieties of Solanum melongena from the Japanese Seikei Zusetsu agricultural encyclopedia
White eggplant compared to two chicken eggs
Illustration of an eggplant (upper picture) in a 1717 manuscript of a work by the thirteenth-century Persian Zakariya al-Qazwini.
Illustrations of an eggplant from a possibly fifteenth-century French manuscript of a work by Matthaeus Platearius. The word melonge, below the illustration, has a blue initial M-.
Three cultivars of eggplant, showing size, shape, and color differences
Segmented purple eggplant
Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants)
Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots)
Philippine tortang talong, an eggplant omelette made from grilled skinned eggplants
Philippine ensaladang talong, a salad on grilled and skinned green eggplant
Philippine rellenong talong, a variant of tortang talong stuffed with ground meat and various vegetables
Philippine pinakbet, a mixed vegetable dish seasoned with bagoong (fermented shrimp paste)
Brinjal masala fry
Brinjal and mango sambar
Parmigiana di melanzane, eggplant parmesan
Penne with eggplant and basil in yogurt-tomato sauce.
Almagro eggplant

Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition.


Widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit.

Fragaria × ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France
Strawberry flower
Achenes (seeds)
Pollen grains of strawberry
Strawberries are usually picked and placed in shallow boxes in the field.
Organic gardener holding a large June-bearing strawberry
Fresh strawberries being sold in plastic containers
Strawberries and cream
Furaneol is an important component of the fragrance of strawberries.
Strawberry field in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
thumb|alt=A large strawberry field with plastic covering the earth around the strawberry plants.|A field using the plasticulture method

The strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry.


Small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.

Blackthorn, Prunus spinosa
Rubus berries have been cultivated by crossbreeding to create a diverse range of brambleberries with desirable traits
Cloudberry, common flowering plant in the cool temperate regions, alpine and arctic tundra and boreal forest.
Example of color contrast in (mostly inedible) wild berries
Mixed frozen berries
A slice of blueberry pie
Elderberry jam on bread
Various dried berries
Japanese barberries
Red currants
Highbush blueberries

In common usage, the term "berry" differs from the scientific or botanical definition of a fruit produced from the ovary of a single flower in which the outer layer of the ovary wall develops into an edible fleshy portion (pericarp).


Widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the Cucurbitaceae family that bears usually cylindrical fruits, which are used as vegetables.

Cucumis sativus flower
Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber by William Henry Hunt (watercolour, 1826 or 1827)
Salad cucumber
An Indian yellow cucumber
A Scandinavian cucumber in slices
Grated cucumber
Komkommer (Cucumis sativus 'Gele Tros')
A varietal grown by the Hmong people with textured skin and large seeds
Lemon cucumber
Dish with cucumber cut pieces (mizeria)
Pickling cucumbers
Isfahan burpless cucumber, Iran
alt=A tendril emerges from cucumber vines to facilitate climbing|A tendril emerges from cucumber vines to facilitate climbing
alt=A string lattice supports vine growth|A string lattice supports vine growth
alt=A bulb-shaped cucumber hanging on the vine|A bulb-shaped cucumber hanging on the vine

In botanical terms, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions.

Atropa belladonna

Toxic perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which also includes tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplant .

Atropa belladonna
Belladonna cultivation, Eli Lilly and Company, 1919
Attractively sweet and cherry-like fruit of Atropa belladonna
A belladonna plaster, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
A homeopathic preparation of belladonna
Leaves of belladonna
Specimen with abundant flowers and green, immature berries
Single flower, showing long pedicel springing from leaf axil.
Atropa belladonna L. Corolla and calyx of single flower in profile.
Atropa belladonna L. Single flower angled to show both exterior and interior.
Atropa belladonna L. Single flower, full face, showing reticulated corolla base and insertion of (characteristically curled) stamens, and pistil.
Single flower, three-quarter face, showing fine detail of puberulent stigma
Atropa belladonna L. single flower back-lit by bright sunlight to reveal purple reticulation of yellowish-green corolla tube.
Back-lit corolla, showing contrast between pubescent, ribbed exterior and more glabrous interior
Cross-section of corolla, showing ripe anthers with flocculent, cream pollen
Atropa belladonna L. Reverse of fruiting calyx, showing concave backs of calyx lobes with dirt from air pollution coating sticky trichomes.
The translucent yellow berries of Atropa belladonna lutea.

The foliage and berries are extremely toxic when ingested, containing tropane alkaloids.


Tree originating in the Americas which is likely native to the highland regions of south-central Mexico to Guatemala.

Native Oaxaca criollo avocados, the ancestral form of today's domesticated varieties
Persea americana, young avocado plant (seedling), complete with parted pit and roots
A seedless avocado, or cuke, growing next to two regular Ettinger avocados
A common technique to germinate avocados at home is to use toothpicks poked into the avocado pit to suspend the pit partially in water.
Young avocado sprout
Avocado houseplant leaf with ruler to indicate size
P. americana, avocado plant flowers
First international air shipment of avocados from Los Angeles to Toronto for the Canadian National Exhibition, 1927
Avocado has elliptical-shaped leaves
Avocado salad, and a tomato and black olive salsa, on a toasted baguette
Indonesian-style avocado milkshake with chocolate syrup
A guacamole mix (right) used as a dip for tortilla chips (left).
Sliced avocado
Unusual avocado variety from Cebu, Philippines

The fruit of the plant, also called an avocado (or avocado pear or alligator pear), is botanically a large berry containing a single large seed.

Ovary (botany)

Ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.

Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing pistil (=ovary+style+stigma), ovules, and petals. The petals and sepals are above the ovary; such a flower is said to have an inferior ovary, or the flower is said to be epigynous.
Cross section of Tulip ovary
Simple fruits are derived from one ovary of a single flower, while aggregate fruits are derived from many ovaries of one flower. Differently, a multiple fruit is derived from multiple ovaries each from their own individual flowers.
The orange is a simple fruit called a hesperidium. It is the mature ovary of a single orange blossom. Though it seems to have sections when cut open, all of these sections together come from a single ovary that develops into different layers.
The raspberry is an aggregate fruit. Each raspberry develops from one flower, but its flower has many ovaries that become the small circular drupes making up the raspberry. There is a seed in each drupe.Longitudinal_section_of_raspberry_flower.gif
The pineapple is a multiple fruit. Each of the purple spikes in this picture are a separate flower, so the whole structure is an inflorescence. This means that the small sections of a pineapple are each a fruit that develop from a separate ovary, and together they make up a multiple fruit.
Ovary insertion: I superior II half-inferior III inferior. a androecium g gynoecium p petals s sepals r receptacle. The insertion point is where a, p, and s converge.
The syncarpous ovary of this melon is made up of four carpels, and has one locule.
In this Peganum harmala, the ovary of a fruit has split into valves.
The seeds in a tomato fruit grow from placental areas at the interior of the ovary. (This is axile placentation in a bi-locular fruit.)
The placentae in Lunaria are along the margins of the fruit, where two carpels fuse. (This is parietal placentation in a bi-locular fruit.)
The valves of Lunaria fruit fall to reveal a septum that was between the two carpels of the ovary.

A superior ovary is found in types of fleshy fruits such as true berries, drupes, etc. A flower with this arrangement is described as hypogynous.


Large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1 – tall, found throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world .

Several species of Berberis are cultivated in Iran for culinary purposes
Crispy Brussels sprouts with barberries on top
Berberis aggregata, fruits.
Berberis aristata, from the Himalayas
Berberis hybrid, with three-spined thorn (modified long shoot leaf) with leafy short shoot. Each thorn is {{convert|20|mm|in|abbr=on}} long.
Berberis hybrid, flower detail (flowers {{convert|7|mm|in|abbr=on}} diameter).
Berberis hybrid, fruit.
Berberis thunbergii, shrub.
Berberis valdiviana, flowers, from Chile (cultivated at Birmingham Botanical Gardens (United Kingdom))
Berberis verruculosa, upper side of shoot above, lower side below.
Berberis vulgaris, flowers and foliage, cultivated in Denmark
Berberis prattii, fruit
Barberry blossom in Eastern Siberia

The fruit is a small berry 5 – long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; in some species, they may be long and narrow, but are spherical in other species.


Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.

Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. Oxycoccus: Red: common cranberry. Orange: small cranberry. Green: American cranberry.
Raw cranberries
Cranberry harvest, Kingston Massachusetts
Vaccinium oxycoccos flowers
The Cranberry Harvest on the Island of Nantucket, Eastman Johnson, 1880.
Cranberry harvest in New Jersey
Arthur Rothstein, Child Labor, Cranberry Bog, 1939. Brooklyn Museum
Cranberry harvest (wet-picking)
Dried cranberries
Annual U.S. crops of cranberries, 1907 to 1935

The fruit is a berry that is larger than the leaves of the plant; it is initially light green, turning red when ripe.

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Small evergreen shrub in the heath family Ericaceae, that bears edible fruit.

Flowers and young shoots
Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus
Lingonberry jam on toast
Lingonberry jam with mustamakkara, a traditional food in Tampere, Finland
19th century illustration
Ripe lingonberries

The fruit is a red berry 6 - 10 mm across, with an acidic taste, ripening in late summer to autumn.