# Bertrand Russell

**RussellRussell, BertrandBertrand Russel16 Questions on the AssassinationBertrand Arthur William RussellKatharine TaitBertrandRussell, BThe Conquest of HappinessThe Earl Russell**

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, essayist, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.wikipedia

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### Alfred North Whitehead

**WhiteheadA. N. WhiteheadA.N. Whitehead**

With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic. He became acquainted with the younger George Edward Moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles.

His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–1913), which he wrote with former student Bertrand Russell.

### Ludwig Wittgenstein

**WittgensteinWittgensteinianLudwig**

He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein.

His teacher, Bertrand Russell, described Wittgenstein as "perhaps the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".

### Gottlob Frege

**FregeFregeanFrege, Gottlob**

He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Though largely ignored during his lifetime, Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) and Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) introduced his work to later generations of philosophers.

### On Denoting

His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy".

"On Denoting" is an essay by Bertrand Russell.

### Principia Mathematica

**Principiaramified theory of typesRamified type theory**

With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic.

The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.

### Analytic philosophy

**Analyticanalytic philosopheranalytical philosophy**

He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein.

With reference to this intellectual basis the initiators of analytic philosophy, G.E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, articulated early analytic philosophy.

### Philosophy of language

**languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference**

His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell were pivotal figures in analytic philosophy's "linguistic turn".

### Mathematical logic

**formal logicsymbolic logiclogic**

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, essayist, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

Frege's work remained obscure, however, until Bertrand Russell began to promote it near the turn of the century.

### John Russell, Viscount Amberley

**Viscount AmberleyViscountLord**

His parents, Viscount and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times.

He was the eldest son of John Russell, who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and father of the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

### Epistemology

**epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge**

His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

In his paper On Denoting and his later book Problems of Philosophy Bertrand Russell stressed the distinction between "knowledge by description" and "knowledge by acquaintance".

### Type theory

**theory of typestypestype**

His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

Between 1902 and 1908 Bertrand Russell proposed various "theories of type" in response to his discovery that Gottlob Frege's version of naive set theory was afflicted with Russell's paradox.

### Set theory

**axiomatic set theoryset-theoreticset**

Bertrand Russell and Ernst Zermelo independently found the simplest and best known paradox, now called Russell's paradox: consider "the set of all sets that are not members of themselves", which leads to a contradiction since it must be a member of itself and not a member of itself.

### Richmond Park

**Friends of Richmond ParkRichmond LodgeHearsum Collection**

Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park.

The park's boundary walls and ten other buildings are listed at Grade II, including Pembroke Lodge, the home of 19th-century British Prime Minister Lord John Russell and his grandson, the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

### Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley

**Lady AmberleyViscountess AmberleyKate**

His parents, Viscount and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times.

She was the mother of the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

### List of Nobel laureates

**Nobel laureateNobel laureatesNobel Prize laureate**

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, essayist, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

### British idealism

**British idealistBritish idealistsIdealist**

In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism".

Doctrines of early British idealism so provoked the young Cambridge philosophers G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell that they began a new philosophical tradition, analytic philosophy.

### G. E. Moore

**G.E. MooreGeorge Edward MooreMoore**

He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He became acquainted with the younger George Edward Moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles.

He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and (before them) Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy.

### Frank Russell, 2nd Earl Russell

**Earl RussellFrank RussellThe Earl Russell**

Russell had two siblings: brother Frank (nearly seven years older than Bertrand), and sister Rachel (four years older).

He was the grandson of the former prime minister John Russell, 1st Earl Russell and elder brother of the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

### Trinity College, Cambridge

**Trinity CollegeTrinityTrinity College Cambridge**

Russell won a scholarship to read for the Mathematical Tripos at Trinity College, Cambridge, and commenced his studies there in 1890, taking as coach Robert Rumsey Webb.

Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers (all Tory or Whig/Liberal), physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historians Lord Macaulay, G. M. Trevelyan and E.H. Carr, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell (whom it expelled before reaccepting), and Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, and Anthony Blunt.

### Russell's paradox

**Russell paradoxPrinciple of comprehensionRussell**

Russell was impressed by the precision of Peano's arguments at the Congress, read the literature upon returning to England, and came upon Russell's paradox.

In the foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy), discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that some attempted formalizations of the naïve set theory created by Georg Cantor led to a contradiction.

### Percy Bysshe Shelley

**ShelleyPercy ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelly**

During these formative years he also discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley.

He was admired by Oscar Wilde, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Leo Tolstoy, Bertrand Russell, W. B. Yeats, Upton Sinclair and Isadora Duncan.

### Alys Pearsall Smith

**AlysAlys RussellThe Hon. Mrs Bertrand Russell**

Russell was 17 years old in the summer of 1889 when he met the family of Alys Pearsall Smith, an American Quaker five years older, who was a graduate of Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia.

Alyssa Whitall "Alys" Pearsall Smith (21 July 1867 – 22 January 1951) was an American-born Quaker relief organiser and the first wife of Bertrand Russell.

### Cambridge Apostles

**Cambridge ApostleApostlesApostle**

He became acquainted with the younger George Edward Moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles.

Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore joined as students, as did John Maynard Keynes, who invited Ludwig Wittgenstein to join.

### The Principles of Mathematics

**Principles of Mathematics**

In 1903 he published The Principles of Mathematics, a work on foundations of mathematics.

The Principles of Mathematics (PoM) is a 1903 book by Bertrand Russell, in which the author presented his famous paradox and argued his thesis that mathematics and logic are identical.

### Logic

**logicianlogicallogics**

His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians.

From 1910 to 1913, Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell published Principia Mathematica on the foundations of mathematics, attempting to derive mathematical truths from axioms and inference rules in symbolic logic.