Bertrand du Guesclin

Du GuesclinBertrand de GuesclinDuguesclinBertram Du GuesclinBertrand DuguesclinConstable du GuesclinConstable GuesclinGuesclin
Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and an important military commander on the French side during the Hundred Years' War.wikipedia
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Charles V of France

Charles VKing Charles VCharles
From 1370 to his death, he was Constable of France for King Charles V.
Led by Bertrand du Guesclin, the French Army was able to turn the tide of the Hundred Years' War to Charles' advantage, and by the end of Charles' reign, they had reconquered almost all the territories ceded to the English in 1360.

Fabian strategy

Fabian tacticsFabianattrition
Well known for his Fabian strategy, he took part in six pitched battles and won the four in which he held command.
The strategy was used by the medieval French general Bertrand du Guesclin during the Hundred Years' War against the English following a series of disastrous defeats in pitched battles against Edward, the Black Prince.

Grand Constable of France

Constable of FranceConstableconnétable
From 1370 to his death, he was Constable of France for King Charles V.

Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years WarHundred Years’ WarHundred Year's War
1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and an important military commander on the French side during the Hundred Years' War.
French forces were led by Bertrand du Guesclin, a Breton, who rose from relatively humble beginnings to prominence as one of France's war leaders.

Battle of Cocherel

Cocherel
On 16 May, he met an Anglo-Navarrese army under the command of Jean de Grailly, Captal de Buch at Cocherel and proved his ability in pitched battle by routing the enemy.
The king of France's forces were led by Bertrand du Guesclin, though Jean, Count of Auxerre was the highest-ranking noble present.

Hugh Calveley

Sir Hugh Calveley
Du Guesclin was knighted in 1354 while serving Arnoul d'Audrehem, after countering a raid by Hugh Calveley on the Castle of Montmuran.
Bertrand du Guesclin, in one of the early highlights of his career, anticipated the attack, posting archers as sentries.

Broons

Motte-Broons
Bertrand du Guesclin was born at Motte-Broons near Dinan, in Brittany, first-born son of Robert du Guesclin and Jeanne de Malmaines.

Guillaume Boitel

In 1366, du Guesclin, with Guillaume Boitel, his faithful companion, leader of his vanguard, captured many fortresses (Magallón, Briviesca and finally the capital Burgos).
Guillaume Boitel, was a knight and the faithful companion of the French knight Bertrand Du Guesclin.

Dinan

Baron de Dinan
Bertrand du Guesclin was born at Motte-Broons near Dinan, in Brittany, first-born son of Robert du Guesclin and Jeanne de Malmaines.

John IV, Duke of Brittany

John IVJean de MontfortDuke of Brittany
On 29 September 1364, at the Battle of Auray, the army of Charles of Blois was heavily defeated by John IV, Duke of Brittany and the English forces under Sir John Chandos.
Bertrand de Guesclin was sent to make the duchy submit to the French king by force of arms in 1378.

Ransom

ransom notedemandransomed
He was captured and ransomed by Charles V for 100,000 francs.
Examples include Richard the Lion Heart and Bertrand du Guesclin.

Battle of Pontvallain

attacked by a large French armybeneath the walls of the Château de la Faignedefeat at Pontvallain
He immediately defeated the remnant of an English army, which had been led by Robert Knolles until his retreat at Guesclin's coming, at the Battle of Pontvallain, and then reconquered Poitou and Saintonge, forcing the Black Prince to leave France.
The Battle of Pontvallain, part of the Hundred Years' War, took place in the Sarthe region of north-west France on 4 December 1370, when a French army under Bertrand du Guesclin heavily defeated an English force which had broken away from an army commanded by Sir Robert Knolles.

Charles II of Navarre

Charles IICharles the BadCharles II the Bad
When he became King in 1364, Charles sent Du Guesclin to deal with Charles II of Navarre, who hoped to claim the Duchy of Burgundy, which Charles hoped to give to his brother, Philip.
There was already a royal army in Normandy besieging the town of Rolleboise, nominally commanded by the Count of Auxerre but actually generalled by Bertrand du Guesclin.

Jean III de Grailly

Jean III de Grailly, captal de BuchJean de GraillyJean de Grailly, Captal de Buch
On 16 May, he met an Anglo-Navarrese army under the command of Jean de Grailly, Captal de Buch at Cocherel and proved his ability in pitched battle by routing the enemy.
In 1364, he commanded the forces of Charles II of Navarre in Normandy, where he was defeated and captured by Bertrand du Guesclin at Cocherel.

Henry II of Castile

Henry IIHenry of TrastámaraHenry of Trastamara
In 1366, Bertrand persuaded the leaders of the "free companies", who had been pillaging France after the Treaty of Brétigny, to join him in an expedition to Spain to aid Count Henry of Trastámara against Pedro I of Castile.
The attack combined Henry's Castillian allies, the Aragonese and the French (a company of Bertrand du Guesclin's mercenaries, expelled by Pedro, who had taken refuge in Guyenne).

Peter of Castile

Pedro of CastilePeter I of CastilePeter I
In 1366, Bertrand persuaded the leaders of the "free companies", who had been pillaging France after the Treaty of Brétigny, to join him in an expedition to Spain to aid Count Henry of Trastámara against Pedro I of Castile.
He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastámara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies.

Battle of Nájera

Battle of NajeraBattle of NavarreteBattle of Nájera (Navarette)
But Henry's army was defeated in 1367 by Pedro's forces, now commanded by Edward, the Black Prince, at Nájera.
While neither the Kingdom of France nor the Crown of Aragon gave him official assistance, he had on his side many Aragonese noblemen and the French free companies loyal to his lieutenant the Breton knight and French commander Bertrand du Guesclin.

Battle of Auray

Auraydefeat
On 29 September 1364, at the Battle of Auray, the army of Charles of Blois was heavily defeated by John IV, Duke of Brittany and the English forces under Sir John Chandos.
Bertrand du Guesclin, who commanded the vanguard of the French troops, was in nearby Brandivy.

Arnoul d'Audrehem

Du Guesclin was knighted in 1354 while serving Arnoul d'Audrehem, after countering a raid by Hugh Calveley on the Castle of Montmuran.
In 1365 he joined Bertrand du Guesclin in the expedition to Spain, and was taken prisoner with him by Edward, the Black Prince at the Battle of Nájera (Navarette) in 1367.

Battle of Montiel

Battle of Campo de Montielbesieged
Du Guesclin and Henry of Trastámara renewed the attack, defeating him at the decisive Battle of Montiel (1369).
Edward, Prince of Wales (known as the Black Prince), in his capacity as Prince of Aquitaine, led the English forces and the French were led by Bertrand du Guesclin The reason Edward represented Aquitaine rather than England, was to avoid the breach of a peace treaty between the French and English that was in place at the time.

Aiquin

Roman d'Aquinsong of Aiquin
Bertrand's family may have claimed descent from Aquin, the legendary Muslim king of Bougie in Africa, a conceit derived from the Roman d'Aquin, a thirteenth-century French chanson de geste from Brittany.
Inspired by Aiquin, the family of the famous French soldier Bertrand du Guesclin (died 1380) claimed to descend from the Saracen king.

Free company

free companiesGreat CompaniesFree Companions
In 1366, Bertrand persuaded the leaders of the "free companies", who had been pillaging France after the Treaty of Brétigny, to join him in an expedition to Spain to aid Count Henry of Trastámara against Pedro I of Castile.
The Bretons and the English in Dauphiné were companies which operated from 1374 to 1411, and accompanied the Counts of Armagnac, Turenne and Duguesclin during their conflicts in Provence and Italy, which brought about the Great Schism between the popes of Avignon and Rome.

Edward the Black Prince

Edward, the Black PrinceBlack PrinceThe Black Prince
But Henry's army was defeated in 1367 by Pedro's forces, now commanded by Edward, the Black Prince, at Nájera.
In 1365 the free companies, under Sir Hugh Calveley and other leaders, took service with Bertrand du Guesclin, who employed them in 1366 in compelling Peter of Castile to flee from his kingdom, and in setting up his bastard brother, Henry of Trastámara, as king in his stead.

Battle of La Rochelle

La Rochelledestroyed an English fleetthe ensuing battle
In 1372, the Franco-Castillan fleet destroyed the English fleet at the Battle of La Rochelle where more than 400 English knights and 8000 soldiers were captured.
Since 1370 large parts of the region had fallen under French rule and in 1372 Bertrand du Guesclin lay siege at La Rochelle.

Treaty of Brétigny

Treaty of BretignyPeace of BrétignyTreaty of Calais
In 1366, Bertrand persuaded the leaders of the "free companies", who had been pillaging France after the Treaty of Brétigny, to join him in an expedition to Spain to aid Count Henry of Trastámara against Pedro I of Castile.
In the following years, French forces were involved in battles against the Anglo-Navarrese (Bertrand du Guesclin's victory at Cocherel on 16 May 1364) and the Bretons.