Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blockerbeta adrenergic receptor antagonistβ-blockersbeta-adrenergic antagonistβ-blockerbeta-adrenoceptor antagonistbetablockerbeta adrenergic antagonist
Beta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).wikipedia
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Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Beta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
After an MI, lifestyle modifications, along with long term treatment with aspirin, beta blockers and statins, are typically recommended.

Propranolol

propanololInderalDexpropranolol
In 1964, James Black synthesized the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered by many to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker class.

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response.
Beta blockers, which counter some of the effects of noradrenaline, are frequently used to treat glaucoma, migraine, and a range of cardiovascular problems.

Atenolol

EsatenololTenorminAtehexal
For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors), or calcium channel blockers.
Atenolol is a beta blocker medication primarily used to treat high blood pressure and heart-associated chest pain.

James Black (pharmacologist)

James W. BlackJames BlackSir James Black
In 1964, James Black synthesized the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered by many to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.
He went to work for ICI Pharmaceuticals in 1958 and, while there, developed propranolol, a beta blocker used for the treatment of heart disease.

Calcium channel blocker

calcium channel blockerscalcium-channel blockerscalcium antagonist
For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors), or calcium channel blockers.
CCBs have been shown to be slightly more effective than beta blockers at lowering cardiovascular mortality, but they are associated with more side effects.

Hyperthyroidism

thyrotoxicosishyperthyroidoveractive thyroid
Medications such as beta blockers may control the symptoms, and anti-thyroid medications such as methimazole may temporarily help people while other treatments are having effect.

Metoprolol

BetalocLopressorToprol-XL
Bisoprolol, carvedilol, and sustained-release metoprolol are specifically indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure, although at doses typically much lower than those indicated for other conditions.
Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β 1 receptor blocker type.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
Management often includes the use of beta blockers such as propranolol or atenolol or, if that is not tolerated, calcium channel blockers or ACE inhibitors.

Pronethalol

In 1964, James Black synthesized the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered by many to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.
Pronethalol (Alderlin, Nethalide) was an early non-selective beta blocker clinical candidate.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

Postural Tachycardia Syndromepostural tachycardia
Medications used may include beta blockers, pyridostigmine, midodrine or fludrocortisone.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response. Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine (adrenaline).
Overall, "Extensive evidence indicates that epinephrine (EPI) modulates memory consolidation for emotionally arousing tasks in animals and human subjects.” Studies have also found that recognition memory involving adrenaline depends on a mechanism that depends on β adrenoceptors. Adrenaline does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, so its effects on memory consolidation are at least partly initiated by β adrenoceptors in the periphery. Studies have found that sotalol, a β adrenoceptor antagonist that also does not readily enter the brain, blocks the enhancing effects of peripherally administered adrenaline on memory. These findings suggest that β adrenoceptors are necessary for adrenaline to have an effect on memory consolidation.

Anxiolytic

anxiolysisanti-anxietyanxiolytics
Officially, beta blockers are not approved for anxiolytic use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms of anxiety such as tachycardia and palpitations.

Social anxiety disorder

social phobiaAnthropophobiasociophobia
Other commonly used medications include beta blockers and benzodiazepines.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

β 1 β1-adrenergic receptorβ 1 adrenergic receptor
β 1 -adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart and in the kidneys.

Anxiety disorder

anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
However, many controlled trials in the past 25 years indicate beta blockers are effective in anxiety disorders, though the mechanism of action is not known.
Medications, such as antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or beta blockers, may improve symptoms.

Long QT syndrome

QT prolongationProlonged QT intervalLong QT syndrome type 3
Management may include avoiding strenuous exercise, getting sufficient potassium in the diet, the use of beta blockers, or an implantable cardiac defibrillator.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine (adrenaline).
Medications to improve angina symptoms include nitroglycerin, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, while preventative treatments include antiplatelets such as aspirin and statins, lifestyle measures such as stopping smoking and weight loss, and treatment of risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Essential tremor

tremorsEssential tremorsBenign essential tremor syndrome
When symptoms are sufficiently troublesome to warrant treatment, the first medication choices are beta blockers such as propranolol or alternately, nadolol and timolol.

Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

β 2 β 2 -adrenergic receptorβ 2 adrenergic receptor
β 2 -adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle.

Carvedilol

CoregDilatrend
Bisoprolol, carvedilol, and sustained-release metoprolol are specifically indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure, although at doses typically much lower than those indicated for other conditions.
Carvedilol is a nonselective beta blocker and alpha-1 blocker.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
They are also widely used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), although they are no longer the first choice for initial treatment of most patients.
Previously beta-blockers such as atenolol were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension.

Bisoprolol

Bisoprolol FumarateConcorZebeta
Bisoprolol, carvedilol, and sustained-release metoprolol are specifically indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure, although at doses typically much lower than those indicated for other conditions.
Bisoprolol is in the beta blocker family of medications and is of the β 1 selective type.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Although beta blockers were once contraindicated in congestive heart failure, as they have the potential to worsen the condition due to their effect of decreasing cardiac contractility, studies in the late 1990s showed their efficacy at reducing morbidity and mortality.
In those with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or valsartan/sacubitril along with beta blockers are recommended.

Theophylline

Theo-DurAccurbronAerolate
Theophylline toxicity can be treated with beta blockers.