Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker
General chemical structure of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dipines)
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker
Skeletal formula of verapamil
Structural formula of diltiazem
Lipid emulsion as used in CCB toxicity
Ethanol blocks voltage-gated calcium channel
A calcium channel embedded in a cell membrane.
Immunohistochemical analysis of L-type calcium channel Cav1.3 (CACNA1D) in human adrenal cortex: Marked immunoreactivity was detected in the zona glomerulosa. In the figure: ZG = zona glomerulosa, ZF = zona fasciculata, AC = adrenal capsule. Immunohistochemistry was performed according to published methods.

CCBs have been shown to be slightly more effective than beta blockers at lowering cardiovascular mortality, but they are associated with more side effects.

- Calcium channel blocker

For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors), or calcium channel blockers.

- Beta blocker
Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

6 related topics

Alpha

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)

Hypertension

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Determinants of mean arterial pressure
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
Rates of hypertension in adult men in 2014.
Diagram illustrating the main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES

First-line medications for hypertension include thiazide-diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).

Previously beta-blockers such as atenolol were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension.

Hydrochlorothiazide, a popular thiazide diuretic

Antihypertensive drug

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

Hydrochlorothiazide, a popular thiazide diuretic
Captopril, the prototypical ACE inhibitor
Valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Propranolol, the first beta-blocker to be successfully developed

Among the most important and most widely used medications are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers.

Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.

Atrial fibrillation

Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart.

Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart.

Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.
Normal rhythm tracing (top) Atrial fibrillation (bottom)
How a stroke can occur during atrial fibrillation
Non-modifiable risk factors (top left box) and modifiable risk factors (bottom left box) for atrial fibrillation. The main outcomes of atrial fibrillation are in the right box. BMI=Body Mass Index.
A 12-lead ECG showing atrial fibrillation at approximately 132 beats per minute
Diagram of normal sinus rhythm as seen on ECG. In atrial fibrillation the P waves, which represent depolarization of the top of the heart, are absent.
ECG of atrial fibrillation (top) and normal sinus rhythm (bottom). The purple arrow indicates a P wave, which is lost in atrial fibrillation.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion

Beta blockers (preferably the "cardioselective" beta blockers such as metoprolol, bisoprolol, or nebivolol)

Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem or verapamil)

Sinus bradycardia seen in lead II with a heart rate of about 50BPM

Bradycardia

Slow resting heart rate, commonly under 60 beats per minute (BPM) as determined by an electrocardiogram.

Slow resting heart rate, commonly under 60 beats per minute (BPM) as determined by an electrocardiogram.

Sinus bradycardia seen in lead II with a heart rate of about 50BPM
Illustration comparing the ECGs of a healthy person (top) and a person with bradycardia (bottom): The points on the heart where the ECG signals are measured are also shown.

Beta blocker medicines also can slow the heart rate and decrease how forcefully the heart contracts.

Beta-blockers may slow the heart rate to a dangerous level if prescribed with calcium channel blocker-type medications.

Illustration depicting angina

Angina

Chest pain or pressure, a symptom of coronary heart disease, usually due to insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle .

Chest pain or pressure, a symptom of coronary heart disease, usually due to insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle .

Illustration depicting angina
Diagram of discomfort caused by coronary artery disease. Pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest. Can also feel discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulders, back or arms.

Beta blockers, specifically B1 adrenergic blockers without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity are the most preferred for the angina treatment out of B1 selective and non-selective as well as B1 ISA agents.

Calcium channel blockers act to decrease the heart's workload, and thus its requirement for oxygen by blocking the calcium channels of the heart muscle cell.

Types of muscle contractions

Inotrope

Agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

Agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

Types of muscle contractions

Beta blockers

Non-dihydropyridine Calcium channel blockers