Beta blocker

Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker

Beta blockers, also spelled β-blockers, are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

- Beta blocker
Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

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Alpha

Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

Metoprolol

Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

Metoprolol, sold under the brand name Lopressor, among others, is a selective β1 receptor blocker medication.

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Alpha blocker

Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).

Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).

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Schematic of G Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling, representing Gi GPCR signaling, Gs GPCR signaling, and Gq GPCR signaling.
An image of a patient with pheochromocytoma. In patients with this disease, a catecholamine-secreting tumor is formed, and causes excess CNS stimulation, such as excess sweating and tachycardia. Nonselective alpha blockers, such as phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine, can be used to mitigate this disease.
Benign prostate hyperplasia, a disease in which urinary retention becomes an issue. Alpha-1 blockers can be used, but it can result in side effects such as increased urination and retrograde ejaculation.
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Finally, the agents carvedilol and labetalol are both α and β-blockers.

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Adrenaline

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Overall, "Extensive evidence indicates that epinephrine (EPI) modulates memory consolidation for emotionally arousing tasks in animals and human subjects.” Studies have also found that recognition memory involving adrenaline depends on a mechanism that depends on β adrenoceptors. Adrenaline does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, so its effects on memory consolidation are at least partly initiated by β adrenoceptors in the periphery. Studies have found that sotalol, a β adrenoceptor antagonist that also does not readily enter the brain, blocks the enhancing effects of peripherally administered adrenaline on memory. These findings suggest that β adrenoceptors are necessary for adrenaline to have an effect on memory consolidation.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.

Asthma

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.
Salbutamol metered dose inhaler commonly used to treat asthma attacks.
Fluticasone propionate metered dose inhaler commonly used for long-term control.
Rates of asthma in 2017
Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma
1907 advertisement for Grimault's Indian Cigarettes, promoted as a means of relieving asthma. They contained belladonna and cannabis.
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms.
alt=A tissue cross section of the airway showing a stained pink wall and an inside full of white mucous|Obstruction of the lumen of a bronchiole by mucoid exudate, goblet cell metaplasia, and epithelial basement membrane thickening in a person with asthma.
Diagram of asthma
Asthma deaths per million persons in 2012{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#ffff20|0–10}}{{legend|#ffe820|11–13}}{{legend|#ffd820|14–17}}{{legend|#ffc020|18–23}}{{legend|#ffa020|24–32}}{{legend|#ff9a20|33–43}}{{legend|#f08015|44–50}}{{legend|#e06815|51–66}}{{legend|#d85010|67–95}}{{legend|#d02010|96–251}}{{refend}}
alt=A map of the world with Europe shaded yellow, most of North and South America orange and Southern Africa a dark red|Disability-adjusted life year for asthma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html |title=WHO Disease and injury country estimates |year=2009 |work=World Health Organization |access-date=November 11, 2009| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091111101009/http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html|archive-date= 11 November 2009 | url-status= live}}</ref>{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#b3b3b3|no data}}{{legend|#ffff65|0-100}}{{legend|#fff200|100–150}}{{legend|#ffdc00|150–200}}{{legend|#ffc600|200–250}}{{legend|#ffb000|250–300}}{{legend|#ff9a00|300–350}}{{legend|#ff8400|350–400}}{{legend|#ff6e00|400–450}}{{legend|#ff5800|450–500}}{{legend|#ff4200|500–550}}{{legend|#ff2c00|550–600}}{{legend|#cb0000|>600}}{{refend}}

Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers.

Illustration depicting angina

Angina

Chest pain or pressure, a symptom of coronary heart disease, usually due to insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle .

Chest pain or pressure, a symptom of coronary heart disease, usually due to insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle .

Illustration depicting angina
Diagram of discomfort caused by coronary artery disease. Pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest. Can also feel discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulders, back or arms.

Beta blockers, specifically B1 adrenergic blockers without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity are the most preferred for the angina treatment out of B1 selective and non-selective as well as B1 ISA agents.

Hydrochlorothiazide, a popular thiazide diuretic

Antihypertensive drug

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

Hydrochlorothiazide, a popular thiazide diuretic
Captopril, the prototypical ACE inhibitor
Valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Propranolol, the first beta-blocker to be successfully developed

Among the most important and most widely used medications are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers.

Types of muscle contractions

Inotrope

Agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

Agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

Types of muscle contractions

Beta blockers

General chemical structure of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dipines)

Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are a group of medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are a group of medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

General chemical structure of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dipines)
Skeletal formula of verapamil
Structural formula of diltiazem
Lipid emulsion as used in CCB toxicity
Ethanol blocks voltage-gated calcium channel
A calcium channel embedded in a cell membrane.
Immunohistochemical analysis of L-type calcium channel Cav1.3 (CACNA1D) in human adrenal cortex: Marked immunoreactivity was detected in the zona glomerulosa. In the figure: ZG = zona glomerulosa, ZF = zona fasciculata, AC = adrenal capsule. Immunohistochemistry was performed according to published methods.

CCBs have been shown to be slightly more effective than beta blockers at lowering cardiovascular mortality, but they are associated with more side effects.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.

Anxiety

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.
Painting entitled Anxiety, 1894, by Edvard Munch
A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum. This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness, as of a man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities".

Medications, such as antidepressants or beta blockers, may improve symptoms.

β2 adrenoceptor shown binding carazolol (yellow) on its extracellular site. β2 stimulates cells to increase energy production and utilization. The membrane the receptor is bound to in cells is shown with a gray stripe.

Adrenergic receptor

β2 adrenoceptor shown binding carazolol (yellow) on its extracellular site. β2 stimulates cells to increase energy production and utilization. The membrane the receptor is bound to in cells is shown with a gray stripe.
The mechanism of adrenoreceptors. Adrenaline or noradrenaline are receptor ligands to either α1, α2 or β-adrenoreceptors. α1 couples to Gq, which results in increased intracellular Ca2+ and subsequent smooth muscle contraction. α2, on the other hand, couples to Gi, which causes a decrease in neurotransmitter release, as well as a decrease of cAMP activity resulting in smooth muscle contraction. β receptors couple to Gs, and increases intracellular cAMP activity, resulting in e.g. heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation and glycogenolysis.

The adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of many catecholamines like norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) produced by the body, but also many medications like beta blockers, beta-2 (β2) agonists and alpha-2 (α2) agonists, which are used to treat high blood pressure and asthma, for example.