Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blockerbeta adrenergic receptor antagonistβ-blockersbeta-adrenergic antagonistβ-blockerbeta-adrenoceptor antagonistbetablockerbeta adrenergic antagonist
Beta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).wikipedia
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Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, diarrhea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cold extremities, exacerbation of Raynaud's syndrome, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, alopecia (hair loss), abnormal vision, hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction and/or alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, diarrhea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cold extremities, exacerbation of Raynaud's syndrome, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, alopecia (hair loss), abnormal vision, hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction and/or alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, diarrhea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cold extremities, exacerbation of Raynaud's syndrome, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, alopecia (hair loss), abnormal vision, hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction and/or alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism.

Orthostatic hypotension

postural hypotensionlow blood pressure with standingfeeling lightheaded with standing
Mixed α 1 /β-antagonist therapy is also commonly associated with orthostatic hypotension.

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
Carvedilol therapy is commonly associated with edema.

Blood–brain barrier

blood-brain barrierblood brain barrierblood-brain-barrier
Due to the high penetration across the blood–brain barrier, lipophilic beta blockers, such as propranolol and metoprolol, are more likely than other less lipophilic beta blockers to cause sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, vivid dreams and nightmares.

Macula densa

Beta blockade, especially of the beta-1 receptor at the macula densa, inhibits renin release, thus decreasing the release of aldosterone.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Beta blockade, especially of the beta-1 receptor at the macula densa, inhibits renin release, thus decreasing the release of aldosterone.

Hyponatremia

Hyponatraemialow blood sodiumlow blood sodium levels
This causes hyponatremia and hyperkalemia.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
Hypoglycemia can occur with beta blockade because β2-adrenoceptors normally stimulate glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) in the liver and pancreatic release of the hormone glucagon, which work together to increase plasma glucose.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Hypoglycemia can occur with beta blockade because β2-adrenoceptors normally stimulate glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) in the liver and pancreatic release of the hormone glucagon, which work together to increase plasma glucose.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Hypoglycemia can occur with beta blockade because β2-adrenoceptors normally stimulate glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) in the liver and pancreatic release of the hormone glucagon, which work together to increase plasma glucose.

Glucagon

serum glucagon
Hypoglycemia can occur with beta blockade because β2-adrenoceptors normally stimulate glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) in the liver and pancreatic release of the hormone glucagon, which work together to increase plasma glucose.

Diabetic hypoglycemia

insulin shockhypoglycemia unawarenesshypoglycemia
β1-blockers have fewer metabolic side effects in diabetic patients; however, the fast heart rate that serves as a warning sign for insulin-induced low blood sugar may be masked, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness.

ACE inhibitor

ACE inhibitorsangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which mostly used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (e.g., ACE inhibitors), or calcium channel blockers. A 2007 study revealed diuretics and beta blockers used for hypertension increase a patient's risk of developing diabetes mellitus, while ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) actually decrease the risk of diabetes.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
A 2007 study revealed diuretics and beta blockers used for hypertension increase a patient's risk of developing diabetes mellitus, while ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) actually decrease the risk of diabetes.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
The blockade of only beta receptors increases blood pressure, reduces coronary blood flow, left ventricular function, and cardiac output and tissue perfusion by means of leaving the alpha-adrenergic system stimulation unopposed.

Cardiac output

Cardiac inputoutputoutput of the heart
The blockade of only beta receptors increases blood pressure, reduces coronary blood flow, left ventricular function, and cardiac output and tissue perfusion by means of leaving the alpha-adrenergic system stimulation unopposed.

Vasodilation

vasodilatorvasodilatorsvasodilatation
Other appropriate antihypertensive drugs to administer during hypertensive crisis resulting from stimulant overdose are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, diuretics such as furosemide, and alpha blockers such as phentolamine.

Nitroglycerin (medication)

nitroglyceringlyceryl trinitratenitroglycerine
Other appropriate antihypertensive drugs to administer during hypertensive crisis resulting from stimulant overdose are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, diuretics such as furosemide, and alpha blockers such as phentolamine.

Furosemide

LasixDiucardinFlüssen
Other appropriate antihypertensive drugs to administer during hypertensive crisis resulting from stimulant overdose are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, diuretics such as furosemide, and alpha blockers such as phentolamine.

Bronchitis

chronic bronchitisbronchialbronchial affection

Cardiogenic shock

cardiogenicCardiovascular collapseshock, cardiogenic

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
A 2007 study revealed diuretics and beta blockers used for hypertension increase a patient's risk of developing diabetes mellitus, while ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) actually decrease the risk of diabetes.