Betaproteobacteria

Beta ProteobacteriaBetaBeta-β-proteobacteriabeta subdivisionbeta-proteobacteriabeta-proteobacteriumbetaproteobacteriumβ-proteobacterium
Betaproteobacteria are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria.wikipedia
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Proteobacteria

proteobacteriumAlpha Proteobacteriaalphaproteobacterium
Betaproteobacteria are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria. An extensive reclassification of families and orders of the class based on a polyphasic analysis (including 16S rRNA gene analyses and 53-protein ribosomal protein concatamer analyses using the rMLST Multilocus sequence typing system) was published in 2017, that removed the order Hydrogenophilales from the class and into a novel class of the "Proteobacteria", the Hydrogenophilalia.
The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs.

Hydrogenophilalia

The Betaproteobacteria are most closely related to the Gammaproteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia and Hydrogenophilalia, and together they make up a taxon which has previously been called "Chromatibacteria". An extensive reclassification of families and orders of the class based on a polyphasic analysis (including 16S rRNA gene analyses and 53-protein ribosomal protein concatamer analyses using the rMLST Multilocus sequence typing system) was published in 2017, that removed the order Hydrogenophilales from the class and into a novel class of the "Proteobacteria", the Hydrogenophilalia.
The class Hydrogenophilalia in the Bacteria was circumscribed in 2017 when it was demonstrated that the order Hydrogenophilales was distinct from the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of physiology, biochemistry, fatty acid profiles, and phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene and 53 ribosomal protein sequences concatenated using the rMLST platform for multilocus sequence typing.

Rhodocyclales

Four orders of Betaproteobacteria are currently recognised - the Burkholderiales, the Neisseriales, the Nitrosomonadales and the Rhodocyclales.
The Rhodocyclales are an order of the class Betaproteobacteria in the phylum "Proteobacteria".

Sutterellaceae

Burkholderiales (type order) comprises the families Burkholderiacae (type family), Alcaliginaceae, Commamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and Sutterellaceae.
The Sutterellaceae are a family of the Betaproteobacteria.

Procabacteriaceae

ProcabacterProcabacteriales
The name "Procabacteriales" was also proposed for an order of endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba, but since they cannot be grown in culture and studies have been limited, the name has never been validly or effectively published, and thus is no more than a nickname without any standing in nomenclature.
"Procabacteriaceae" is a Candidatus family of uncultivated Gram-negative Betaproteobacteria.

Nitrosomonadales

Nitrosomonadaceae
Four orders of Betaproteobacteria are currently recognised - the Burkholderiales, the Neisseriales, the Nitrosomonadales and the Rhodocyclales. The same study also merged the former order Methylophilales into the Nitrosomonadales. Nitrosomonadales comprises the families Nitrosomonadaceae (type family), Methylophilacae, Thiobacillaceae, Sterolibacteriacae, Spirillaceae and Gallionellaceae. Biological wastewater treatment systems, as well as other biological ammonium-removing methods, depend on the metabolism of various Bacteria including members of the Nitrosomonadales of the Betaproteobacteria that undergo nitrification and a wide range of organisms capable of denitrification to remove excessive ammonia from wastewater by first oxidation into nitrate and then nitrite and then reduction into molecular nitrogen gas, which leaves the ecosystem and is carried into the atmosphere.
The Nitrosomonadales are an order of the class Betaproteobacteria in the phylum "Proteobacteria".

Gammaproteobacteria

Gamma Proteobacteriagammaproteobacteriumγ-proteobacteria
The Betaproteobacteria are most closely related to the Gammaproteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia and Hydrogenophilalia, and together they make up a taxon which has previously been called "Chromatibacteria".

Oxalobacteraceae

Burkholderiales (type order) comprises the families Burkholderiacae (type family), Alcaliginaceae, Commamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and Sutterellaceae.

Hydrogenophilaceae

HydrogenophilalesHydrogenophilusHydrogenophilus thermoluteolus
An extensive reclassification of families and orders of the class based on a polyphasic analysis (including 16S rRNA gene analyses and 53-protein ribosomal protein concatamer analyses using the rMLST Multilocus sequence typing system) was published in 2017, that removed the order Hydrogenophilales from the class and into a novel class of the "Proteobacteria", the Hydrogenophilalia.
The genus Thiobacillus was previously considered to be a member in this family but was reclassified into the order Nitrosomonadales at the same time that the Hydrogenophilales were removed from the Betaproteobacteria and the class Hydrogenophilalia was formed.

Methylophilaceae

Methylophilales
The same study also merged the former order Methylophilales into the Nitrosomonadales.

Spirillaceae

Nitrosomonadales comprises the families Nitrosomonadaceae (type family), Methylophilacae, Thiobacillaceae, Sterolibacteriacae, Spirillaceae and Gallionellaceae.
Spirillaceae is a family in the order Nitrosomonadales in the class Betaproteobacteria of the bacteria.

Nitrification

nitrifiersnitrifyingremoval of nitrogen
Biological wastewater treatment systems, as well as other biological ammonium-removing methods, depend on the metabolism of various Bacteria including members of the Nitrosomonadales of the Betaproteobacteria that undergo nitrification and a wide range of organisms capable of denitrification to remove excessive ammonia from wastewater by first oxidation into nitrate and then nitrite and then reduction into molecular nitrogen gas, which leaves the ecosystem and is carried into the atmosphere.
AOB can be found among the β-proteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria.

Burkholderia cepacia complex

Burkholderia cepaciaBurkholderia cepacia'' complexB. cepacia
Other members of the class can infect plants, such as Burkholderia cepacia which causes bulb rot in onions as well as Xylophilus ampelinus which causes necrosis of grapevines.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negativeGram negativeGram-negative bacterium
Betaproteobacteria are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria.

Phylum

phyladivisionsuperphylum
Betaproteobacteria are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
The Betaproteobacteria are a class comprising over 75 genera and 400 species of bacteria.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
Together, the Betaproteobacteria represent a broad variety of metabolic strategies and occupy diverse environments from obligate pathogens living within host organisms to oligotrophic groundwater ecosystems.

Photoheterotroph

photoheterotrophic
Whilst most members of the Betaproteobacteria are heterotrophic, deriving both their carbon and electrons from organocarbon sources, some are photoheterotrophic, deriving energy from light and carbon from organocarbon sources.

Bicarbonate

hydrogen carbonateHCO 3 HCO 3 −
Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.

Inorganic compound

inorganicinorganic compoundsinorganic chemical
Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.

Ion

cationanionions
Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.

Nitrite

nitritesNO 2 − nitrite ion
Biological wastewater treatment systems, as well as other biological ammonium-removing methods, depend on the metabolism of various Bacteria including members of the Nitrosomonadales of the Betaproteobacteria that undergo nitrification and a wide range of organisms capable of denitrification to remove excessive ammonia from wastewater by first oxidation into nitrate and then nitrite and then reduction into molecular nitrogen gas, which leaves the ecosystem and is carried into the atmosphere. Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.

Ammonium

ammonium saltammonium ionNH 4 +
Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling.