Betrayal trauma

Betrayal Trauma Theorybetray
Betrayal trauma is defined as a trauma perpetrated by someone with whom the victim is close to and reliant upon for support and survival.wikipedia
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Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Betrayal trauma is defined as a trauma perpetrated by someone with whom the victim is close to and reliant upon for support and survival.
This is seen when institutions depended upon for survival violate, humiliate, betray, or cause major losses or separations instead of evoking aspects like positive self worth, safe boundaries and personal freedom.

Jennifer Freyd

JenniferJennifer J. Freyd
The concept originally introduced by Jennifer Freyd in 1994, betrayal trauma theory (BTT), occurs when people or institutions on which a person relies for protection, resources, and survival violate the trust or well-being of that person.
Freyd became known for introducing the concept betrayal trauma and establishing the term DARVO.

Institutional betrayal

Institutional betrayal (IB) refers to wrongdoings perpetrated when an institution fails to prevent or appropriately respond to wrongdoings by other individuals.
It is an extension of betrayal trauma theory.

Betrayal

double crosstreacherybackstabbing
Betrayal trauma theory emerged to integrate evolutionary processes, mental modules, social cognitions, and developmental needs with the extent to which the fundamental ethic of human relationships are violated.
Betrayal trauma has symptoms similar to Posttraumatic stress disorder, although the element of amnesia and disassociation is likely to be greater.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
A foundational component of the dissociative aspect of BTT postulated that all humans possess an inherent mental mechanism to detect violations of social contracts (i.e., "cheater detectors").

Psychogenic amnesia

dissociative amnesiamissing timeblacked out
Thus, betrayal trauma offered a theory of psychogenic amnesia designed to evaluate both the role of attachment in human survival and the significance of blocking the painful experience.

Child sexual abuse

child molestationchild molestermolested
Child sexual abuse (CSA) can involve molestation by one or more caregivers or close relatives.

Sexual minority

sexual minoritiessexualGSM
Recent literature has expanded in this area to evaluate minority populations such as gender and sexual minorities (GSM), who may be at increased risk of experiencing institutional betrayal in academic institutions.

Sexual assault in the United States military

Sexual assault in the U.S. militarymilitary sexual assaultsexual assault
In effort to directly measure institutional betrayal, results from comparisons of female veterans who experienced civilian sexual assault and those who experienced sexual assault in the United States military indicated that institutional betrayal was higher in military contexts when members were highly dependent upon the military for safety, protection, and employment.

Shooting of Stephon Clark

Stephon ClarkStephon Clark was shot and killed
However, recent deaths suspected to be the result of police officers using excessive force (e.g., shooting of Stephon Clark, shooting of Philando Castile) have shone light upon the issue of police brutality as a form of institutional betrayal.

Shooting of Philando Castile

Philando CastilePhilandro CastileCastile, Philando
However, recent deaths suspected to be the result of police officers using excessive force (e.g., shooting of Stephon Clark, shooting of Philando Castile) have shone light upon the issue of police brutality as a form of institutional betrayal.

Police brutality

excessive forcepolice violencebrutality
However, recent deaths suspected to be the result of police officers using excessive force (e.g., shooting of Stephon Clark, shooting of Philando Castile) have shone light upon the issue of police brutality as a form of institutional betrayal.

Suicide by cop

suicide by policesuicide-by-copby provoking local police
Additionally, recent studies have identified mentally ill individuals as being at a higher risk for experiencing police brutality, especially with regard to suicide by cop.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
More recent literature exploring BTT in romantic partnerships has focused on the inclusion of domestic violence (DV).

Intimate partner violence

Common couple violenceintimate partnersintimate-partner violence
In the context of intimate partner violence (IPV), vulnerability/fear, relationship expectations, shame/low self-esteem, and communication issues are suggested to be ways exposure to betrayal trauma manifests and subsequently serves as a barrier to forming new romantic relationships.

John Bowlby

BowlbyDr John BowlbyE. J. M. Bowlby
John Bowlby in 1969 was the first to identify the link between attachment processes and dissociative psychopathology.

Dissociation (psychology)

dissociationdissociativedissociative state
Dissociation is described as the disruption of conscious memory, identity, or perception of one's immediate environment.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Models of attachment-based dissociative disorders and trauma-related disorders involving betrayal trauma have been indicated in diagnostic groups such as posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, trauma and stress-related disorders, dissociative disorders, schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders and substance-related and addictive disorders.

Dissociative identity disorder

multiple personality disordermultiple personalitiessplit personality
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is commonly connected with prolonged overwhelming trauma such as childhood sexual abuse.

Substance use disorder

addictionsubstance use disordersaddictive
This substance use may be episodic binge drinking or chronic substance use that can meet diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) may have links to early maltreatment and attachment difficulties.

Intergenerationality

intergenerationalInter-generational contractgenerational differences
As a possible mechanism for such intergenerational transmission, it has been proposed that mothers with betrayal traumas or dissociative symptoms may have more difficulty in creating a safe environment for their children.

Relational-cultural therapy

relational-cultural theory
In an article by Jennifer M. Gómez in 2016 postulated that relational-cultural therapy is a match for treating betrayal trauma.

Cognitive inhibition

inhibitioninhibit or hold back a prepotent responseinhibited anger
Cognitive inhibition may have played a role in the survival of human children, in what is called betrayal trauma theory.

Repressed memory

repressed memoriesrecovered memoryrepressed
A prominent more specific theory of memory repression, "Betrayal Trauma Theory", proposes that memories for childhood abuse are the most likely to be repressed because of the intense emotional trauma produced by being abused by someone the child is dependent on for emotional and physical support; in such situations, according to this theory, dissociative amnesia is an adaptive response because it permits a relationship with the powerful abuser (whom the child is dependent upon) to continue in some form.