The Bharhut stupa, depicted on one of the friezes. Freer Gallery of Art
The gateways (left) were made by northern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks, while the railings (right) were made by masons using marks in the local Brahmi script.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balustrades
Bharhut pillar capital with rosette, beads-and-reels and flame palmette designs.
Adoration of the Dharmachakra.
Buddha sculpture at Bharhut 11-12th cent
Worship of the Bodhi tree.
Worship of the Dharmachakra.
Worship of the Bodhi tree, with Yakshini.
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha.
Maya's dream, Sanchi, 1st century BCE.
Māyā's dream, Gandhara, 2–3rd century CE.
Dream of Mayadevi, Mardan.
Maya's Dream, Gandhara, 2nd-3rd century CE.
Asadrisa Jataka.
Bull and Tiger Jataka.
Dasaratha Jataka.
Chhandantiya Jataka.
Isi-Singe Jataka.
Latuwa Jataka.
Naga Jataka.
Yavamajhakiya Jataka.
Yambumane-Avayesi Jataka or Andha-Bhuta Jataka.
Kinara Jataka.
Hansa Jataka.
Monkey Jataka.
Monkey Jataka.
Female bust
Female Figure holding a Lotus
Female Figure holding a Torch
Male and Female Figures
Male Figure
Male Figure on top of Column
Male Figure
Male Figure holding a Lotus
Male Figure holding a Flower
Male Figure
East Gateway
Railing post.
Post with reliefs.
Restoration plans.
Bharhut excavation
The Yaksha relief at Bharhut being worshipped as Hanuman by local villagers
The ruined Bharhut Stupa; seen behind it is the Lal Pahadi (Red Mountain)
Railing section at Indian Museum.

Village located in the Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, central India.

- Bharhut

85 related topics



Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Siri-Satakani inscription
Cave No.19
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Another one
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
this image
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Half lotus.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

Bharhut is 300 km to the northeast.

Shunga Empire

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.


Mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (such as śarīra – typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.

The Piprahwa stupa is one of the earliest surviving stupas.
Buddha's ashes Stupa built by the Licchavis, Vaishali and one of the earliest stupas
An early stupa, 6 m in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side at Chakpat, near Chakdara; probably Maurya, 3rd century BCE
an inscribed dedication
The Ahin Posh stupa was dedicated in the 2nd century CE under the Kushans, and contained coins of Kaniska I.
The Chinese Songyue Pagoda
Row of stupas on roadside east of Leh, Ladakh.jpg (523 CE) is thought to derive from the Gandharan tower-stupa model.
Borobudur bell-shaped stupas
A Jain stupa, Mathura, 1st century CE
Boudhanath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal
View of the Wat Phra Kaew complex from the northeast, temple complex of the Emerald Buddha with stupas
The sharing of the relics of the Buddha. Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, 2-3rd century CE. ZenYouMitsu Temple Museum, Tokyo.
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan. These surviving relics are now housed in Mandalay, Myanmar.
The Eight Great Stupas
Row of chortens at roadside near Leh, Ladakh
Enlightenment Stupa at Ogoy Island, Russia
Sanchi Stupa No.2, the earliest known stupa with important displays of decorative reliefs, circa 125 BCE<ref name="Bell 15">Didactic Narration: Jataka Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff</ref>
East Gateway and Railings of Bharhut Stupa. Sculptured railings: 115 BCE, toranas: 75 BCE.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi<ref name="Alī Jāvīd p.50">World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 p.50 by Alī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, New York </ref> Decorated toranas built from the 1st c. BCE to the 1st c. CE.
Amaravati stupa, 1st-2nd century CE
A model resembling the Saidu Sharif Stupa, with square base and four columns (1st century CE).<ref>Le Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, Grafikol 2009, p.174-176</ref>
Loriyan Tangai decorated stupa, in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara (2nd century CE).
A tower-shaped stupa, thought to be the design of the second (rebuilt) Kanishka stupa, Jaulian monastery
Stupa-shaped reliquary, Kushan period, about 2nd century CE
Chilas petroglyphs, Buddhist stupa, circa 300-350 CE based on paleography<ref>Dated "between A.D. 300-350 based on Kharosthi, Brahmi, and Sodian inscriptions written before and after the drawing was completed (fig.3) In the center of the triptych, a spectacular stupa with a relatively small dome [anda], a chattravali with seven disks, columns, banners, and multiple bells illustrates a trend towards decorative profusion." {{cite journal |journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute |date=2002 |title=Chital petroglyphs|page=152 |url= |publisher=Wayne State University Press |language=en}}</ref>
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, which contained the relics of Buddha, the oldest known stupa
An early stupa at Guntupalle, probably Maurya Empire, third century BCE
Buddha statue inside a votive stupa, Sarnath
Abayagiri Dageba, Sri Lanka
Chorten near Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet
The white stupa in Miaoying Temple, China
The Kalachakra stupa in Karma Guen, Spain
Stupa of Kantha Bopha
Stupa of King Norodom Suramarit
Main stupa at Wat Phnom
Stupa at Wat Botum
Stupa at Oudong
Golden stupa at Wat Ounalom
thumb|Roadside stupa. Kathmandu 1979
Boudhanath Stupa
Kaathe Swyambhu
Tahiti stupa
Yetkha Stupa
thumb|Small stupa in Kathmandu street

In effect, many stupas are thought to date originally from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he also erected pillars with his inscriptions, and possibly Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara.

Indian Museum, Kolkata

Ninth oldest museum in the world, the oldest and largest museum in India.

The courtyard of the Indian Museum
The Indian Museum, c. 1905
Egyptian human mummy, about 4,000 years old, at the museum.
Stone sculpture of Devi Durga in Kolkata
Elephant skeleton
Showcases with different types of fossils
Egyptian Exhibit
Stone imprint of Buddha's foot
Palaeoloxodon namadicus, extinct elephant
Unicorn seal of Indus Valley
Copy of the Lion Capital of Ashoka
Skull of Indus Valley inhabitants
Young goat with eight legs
The Mathura Herakles.
thumb|A Tsuri-daiko (gaku-daiko), the large Japanese hanging drum, on display.
Revamped gallery of animals (specimens)

The large collection of ancient and medieval Indian artifacts include the complete railings and gateways of the Buddhist stupa from Bharhut (the bare stupa is still at Bharhut, near Satna, MP).

Jataka tales

The Jātakas (meaning "Birth Story", "related to a birth") are a voluminous body of literature native to South Asia which mainly concern the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.

The railings of the Bharhut Stupa contain roundels with jātaka illustrations
Bhutanese painted thangka of the Jātakas, 18t–19th century, Phajoding Gonpa, Thimphu, Bhutan
Jatakamala manuscript 8th-9th century
Pali manuscript of the Suvannasama Jataka, Khom Thai script (Khmer Mul script), Central Thailand, 18th century
Sama cares for his blind parents, an illustration of one of the Mahānipāta jātakas
Sibi Jataka in limestone at Nagarjunakonda (c. 3rd-4th Century CE), Andhra Pradesh
thumb|Chaddanta Jataka, Sanchi
thumb|Mahakapi Jataka, Sanchi
Sama Jataka, Sanchi
Syama Jataka Sanchi Stupa
Vessantara Jataka, Sanchi
Muga Pakha Jataka, Bharhut
Vessantara Jataka, Bharhut, Shunga period
Bharhut, Bull and Tiger Jataka
Ajanta Cave 1, Mahajanaka Jataka
Hamsa jataka, Ajanta Caves
Ajanta cave 1, Chanpeyya Jataka
Sibi Jataka, Gandhara
Maha-Ummagga Jataka, Gandhara, 2nd century CE
Dipankara Jataka, Jamalgarhi
Tumshuq, Toqquz-sarai monastery, Visvamtara-jataka
Nine-colored deer jataka. Northern Wei. Mogao cave 257
Thangka of Buddha with the One Hundred Jataka Tales in the background, Tibet, 13th-14th century.
Khudda-bodhi-Jataka, Borobudur
Borobudur Jataka, Level 1 Balustrade, South Wall
Borobudur Jataka, Level 1 Balustrade, South Wall
Kucha, Turtle King Jataka
Modern era rendition of the Jataka tales by a Myanmar-based Vipassana center in India
Mahajanaka Jataka
Thai Vessantara Jataka Narrative Scroll
King Bhuridatta although caught by Alambayana maintains his Virtue, Bhuridatta Jataka
Thai Vessantara Jataka painting
"The snow-covered mountain child", by Soga Shōhaku circa 1764
The Story of King Mandhatar; The Story of King Candraprabha; The Tale of the Island of Vadaradvipa, Tibetan Painting from an Avadana Kalpalata Jataka Series
Tibetan Buddha Shakyamuni with "Jataka" Tales
Round Bowl Depicting the Vessantara Jataka - Silver Alloy - 18th-19th Century CE - Myanmar.

Some of the earliest such illustrations can be found at Sanchi and Bharhut.

Indian art

Indian art consists of a variety of art forms, including painting, sculpture, pottery, and textile arts such as woven silk.

Crossbar medallion with elephant and riders, Mathura art, circa 150 BCE.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, c. 273 BCE – 232 BCE (Mauryan Empire), enlarged c. 150 BCE – 50 BCE (Shunga Dynasty)
A monumental rock-cut cave, the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, built circa 120 CE
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Vishvanatha Temple, part of the Khajuraho group of monuments
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Fresco from the Ajanta Caves, c. 450-500
Akbar riding the elephant Hawa'I pursuing another elephant
Pair of gold earrings, 1st century BCE, Andhra Pradesh.
Indian art also found its way into Italy, within the context of Indo-Roman trade: in 1938 the Pompeii Lakshmi was found in the ruins of Pompeii (destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE).
Warli painting from Maharastra
The Kala Bhavana (Institute of Fine Arts), Santiniketan. It boasts an extremely well-known faculty and student body. It is most famous for the spread of Bengal School of Art.
National Museum, New Delhi
Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai
Indian Museum, Kolkata
Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad
Government Museum, Chennai
Cave 3 at the Badami cave temples (Early Chalukya dynasty, {{circa|lk=no|6th century CE}})
Shore Temple of Mamallapuram (Pallava dynasty, 700–728 CE)
Youth in lotus pond, ceiling fresco at Sittanvasal, 850 CE
Chola bronze sculpture of Shiva as Nataraja, the Lord of Dance
Rasmancha, Bishnupur. Built by King Bir Hambir, the temple has an unusual elongated pyramidical tower, surrounded by hut-shaped turrets, which were very typical of Bengali roof structures of the time.
Terracotta work on Shyamrai Temple, Bishnupur, depicting Raas-Leela.
Wooden Owls of Natungram, West Bengal, India. The wooden owl is an integral part of an ancient and indigenous tradition and art form in Bengal.
Yama, Kalighat School of Art.
Balabhadra, Subhadra and Jagannath idols in Odhisa.
Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore.
Journey's End by Abanindranath Tagore.
Two cats holding a large prawn by Jamini Roy.
Pratima Visarjan by Gaganendranath Tagore.
Gaganendranath Tagore - Meeting at the Staircase.
Fresco by Nandalal Bose in Dinantika - Ashram Complex - Santiniketan.
Group of Three Girls by Amrita Sher-Gil
Boating by Jamini Roy.
Pseudorealistic Indian painting. Couple, Kids and Confusion. by Devajyoti Ray.
Mural by Satish Gujral.

Some key sites are Sanchi, Bharhut and Amaravati, some of which remain in situ, with others in museums in India or around the world.

Alexander Cunningham

British Army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India.

Cunningham (fourth from the right) at an unknown date
Leh Palace, Ladakh. Illustration from Ladak: Physical, Statistical, and Historical
Letter dated 31 January 1862, appointing Cunningham as Surveyor General

Other major works included the first volume of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum (1877) which included copies of the edicts of Ashoka, The Stupa of Bharhut (1879) and the Book of Indian Eras (1883) which allowed the dating of Indian antiquities.


Widespread symbol used in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and especially Buddhism.

Dharmachakra in front of a statue of Padmasambhava. Lake Rewalsar, Himachal Pradesh, India
Ten Indus characters from the northern gate of Dholavira, dubbed the Dholavira Signboard.
Worshipers and Dharmachakra, Sanchi Stupa, South Face, West Pillar.
The original Lion Capital of Ashoka, from Sarnath. It originally supported a large dhamachakra on the top.
Wheel of the chariot of the sun, Konark Sun Temple.
The Emblem of India, featuring the Ashoka Chakra on the base panel representing the Dharmachakra
Jain illustration with dharmachakra and the motto Ahiṃsā Paramo Dharma (non-violence is the highest dharma).
Reconstitution of approximate layout of Sanchi at the time of the Mauryas, showing the pillar topped by a dharmachakra.
Bharhut Pasenadi Pillar
Sanchi pillar capital wheel reconstitution
Bharhut Stupa at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Sandstone depiction, c. 2nd Century BCE, Bharhut, Indian Museum – Kolkata.
Illustrated reconstruction of the pinnacles at Bharhut by Alexander Cunningham
Eastern gateway of Bharhut stupa topped with a dharmachakra pinnacle
Buddha represented by Dharmacakra, Sanchi Stupa no. 3.
Dharmacakra on Pillar, Sanchi Stupa no. 3
Adoration of the pillar of Ashoka, Sanchi Stupa no. 3.
Illustration from Sanchi Stupa
Sanchi Stupa
Amaravati Stupa relief at Museum in Chennai, India.
Limestone Pilaster, 2nd century CE, Amravati, Indian Museum, Kolkata.
Buddha footprints with dharmachakras, Archaeological Museum, Amaravati
1st century Gandhara Buddha footprint
Gandharan Stele illustrating the first sermon at Sarnath, 2nd century, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Stele from Gandhara
A sculpture depicting the dharmachakra in the museum of Amaravathi
Taxila coin with wheel and Buddhist symbols
Coin found in Afghanistan, 50 BCE – c. 30 CE, at the latest before 50 CE.
Three Jewels, or Triratna. Eastern Afghanistan. Kushan period. 2–3 century.
Dharmachakra Pravartana Mudra, Gupta period, 5th CE.
Dhammacakka, National Museum, Bangkok, Thailand
Dhammacakka, National Museum, Bangkok, Thailand
Khao Klang Nai, Si Thep Historical Park, Thailand.
Mon dharmachakra, VII or IX century, Sandstone
Dharma wheel, Japan, Kamakura period, 1200s CE, bronze – Tokyo National Museum.
Part of a Buddha-statue, showing the first five disciples of the Buddha at Sarnath and dharmachakra.
Japanese dharmachakra, late 13th century.
Mandala Base, China, Ming dynasty, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Dharma wheel, China, Qing dynasty, Qianlong period, 1736–1795 CE.
Box with Ink Cakes: Yellow Ink Stick, China, Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Jokhang Monastery
Wat Phothivihan, Tumpat, Kelantan
Wat Maisuwankiri, Tumpat, Malaysia
Bhutanese Dharmachakra, Thimphu
Entrance to Wat Phra Sing
Garuda upholding the Dhammacakka, Wat Sri Suphan, Chiang Mai
Dharmachakra at Boudanath
Dhammacakka on Main Gable, Wat Phra Putthabat Tak Pha, Lamphun
Entrance to the Global Vipassana Pagoda
The Emblem of Mongolia includes the dharmachakra, a cintamani, a padma, blue khata and the Soyombo symbol
The Emblem of Sri Lanka, featuring a blue dharmachakra as the crest
Emblem of the Supreme Court of India, which shows the dharmachakra on top of the Lion Capital. It was found broken during the excavations.
The Flag of India has the Ashoka Chakra at its center representing the Dharmachakra.
The flag of the former Kingdom of Sikkim featured a version of the Dharmachakra
Emblem of Central Tibetan Administration with Tibetan Buddhist style Dharmachakra
The dhammacakka flag, the symbol of Buddhism in Thailand
The seal of Thammasat University in Thailand consisting of a Constitution on phan with a twelve-spoked dhammacakkka
Colours of the National Scout Organization of Thailand
Flag used by the Indian Dalit Buddhist Movement
The insignia for Buddhist chaplains in the United States Armed Forces.
Wheel in Jain Symbol of Ahimsa represents dharmachakra
USVA headstone emblem 2

In the Buddhist Art at early sites such as Bharhut and Sanchi, the dharmachakra was often used as a symbol of Gautama Buddha himself.

Art of Mathura

The Art of Mathura refers to a particular school of Indian art, almost entirely surviving in the form of sculpture, starting in the 2nd century BCE, which centered on the city of Mathura, in central northern India, during a period in which Buddhism, Jainism together with Hinduism flourished in India.

Mathura anthropomorphological artefact. Copper Hoard Culture (2nd millennium BCE). Mathura Museum.
A terracotta votive figurine from Mathura. The wide hips and fantastic floral headdress suggest a devotion towards fertility and abundance. She has lotus stalks in her head, and children clinging to her. Height: 25.7 cm (10.1 ″). Mathura, 3rd-2nd century BCE.
billowing ribons
A dancing goddess in Indian dress
The "Mehrauli Yakshi", dated to 150 BCE, Mathura.
Linga inside a railing (left), being worshipped by Gandharvas winged creatures. Circa 100 BCE.
Kankali Tila architrave
The Katra architrave, possibly representing Brahmins and the cult of the Shiva Linga, Mathura, circa 100 BCE<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=47–49, Fig. 29 and 30|url=|language=en}}</ref>
The Mathura lion capital, a dynastic production, advertising the rule of Rajuvula and his relatives, as well as their sponsorship of Buddhism. 2 BCE-6 CE.
Coins of contemporary Indo-Greek ruler Strato (r.c.25 BCE to 10 CE, top) and Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura Rajuvula (r.c.10 BCE to 10 CE, bottom) discovered together in a mound in Mathura. The coins of Rajuvula were derived from those of Strato.
introduced from the Gandhara area
A sample of the new calligraphic style introduced by the Indo-Scythians: fragment of the Mirzapur stele inscription, in the vicinity of Mathura, circa 15 CE. Gupta ashoka svaa.jpgGupta ashoka mi.jpg ashoka sya.svgGupta ashoka m.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka kss.jpg ashoka tr.jpgGupta ashoka p.svg ashoka sya.svg Gupta ashoka shu.jpgGupta gujarat daa.jpgGupta_ashoka_s.svg ashoka sya.svg Svāmisya Mahakṣatrapasya Śudasasya "Of the Lord and Great Satrap Śudāsa"
The "Isapur Buddha", probably the earliest known representation of the Buddha (possibly together with the [[:File:Butkara I stupa in-situ seated Buddha.jpg|Butkara seated Buddha]] statue at the Butkara Stupa, Swat), on a railing post, dated to circa 15 CE.
The Jina Parsvanatha (detail of an ayagapata), highly similar to the Isapur Buddha, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum. <ref name=""/>
Indra attending the Buddha
"Indrasala architrave", detail of the Buddha in Indrasala Cave, attended by the Vedic deity Indra. 50-100 CE.
Buddhist "Indrasala architrave", with Buddha and Bodhi Tree in the center of each side, dated 50-100 CE, before the Kushan period. The Buddha is attended by Vedic deity Indra on the side of the Indrasala Cave.
Butkara seated Buddha
Depiction of the Buddha (with legend in Greek ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo") on the reverse of Kanishka's coinage (127–150 CE).
A Mathura standing Buddha in "Samghati" monastic dress, circa 2nd century CE, Mathura Museum
the inscribed pedestal
relevant passage of the inscription
bejeweled princely types of Bodhisattvas
Type of statuette now reattributed to Vāsudeva, with three attributes (mace, wheel, conch), hand in abhaya mudra and without an aureole, 3rd-4th century.
only one such relief is known
Standing Buddha in red sandstone, Mathura, Gupta Empire period, circa 5th century CE. Mathura Museum.
thumb|<center>Pillar recording the installation of Shiva Lingas in the "year 61" (380 CE) during the rule of Chandragupta II.{{sfn|Agrawal|1989|p=98}}<ref name=""/></center>
The Huna Mihirakula essentially wiped out the Mathura school of art.
A Yakshini, 10th century, Mathura, India. Guimet Museum.
Jain statue inscribed Samvat 1134 (1077 CE), about 60 years after the sack of Mathura by Mahmud of Ghazni. Kankali Tila, Mathura.
Seated Shiva, Modern Period
Terracotta figurine, Mathura, 4th century BCE
Terracotta female coiffure, Mathura, 2nd century BCE
<center>"Ethnic head", Mathura, c. 2nd century BCE.<ref name="AV141">{{cite book|last1=Vishnu|first1=Asha|title=Material Life of Northern India: Based on an Archaeological Study, 3rd Century B.C. to 1st Century B.C.|date=1993|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=9788170994107|page=141|url=|language=en}}</ref></center>
<center>"Persian Nobleman clad in coat dupatta trouser and turban", Mathura, c. 2nd Century BCE. </center>
thumb|upright=1.3|Crossbar medallion with elephant and riders, Gayatri Tila, Mathura, circa 150 BCE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=23–25|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Male Chauri bearer, Mathura, c.150 BCE.<ref name="SRQ19">[[:File:Male Bust - Shunga Period - Jamalpur - ACCN 00-I-15 - Government Museum - Mathura 2013-02-24 6094.JPG|Male a Chauri-bearer]] discussed in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=19 and Fig.7|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Collections-Virtual Museum of Images and Sounds|url=||publisher=American Institute of Indian Studies}}</ref>
Yaksha holding a mudgar mace and a child. 100 BCE.<ref>Dated 100 BCE in Fig. 85 {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.85, p.365|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Crossbar with female head in lotus medallion, circa 2nd Century BCE, Mathura.<ref>{{cite web|title=Collections-Virtual Museum of Images and Sounds|url=||publisher=American Institute of Indian Studies}}</ref>
Buddhist railing with Bodhi tree and Wheel of Law. 1st century BCE
Railing crossbars, 2nd-1st century BCE.
Crossbar medallion with horse rider. 2nd-1st century BCE.
An anguiped, also seen in Hellenistic and Roman art, c. 1st century BCE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=132 Note 57|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Kankali Tila architrave with Centaurs worshipping a Jain Stupa, Mathura, circa 100 BCE<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=Fig. 21 and 22|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Yashi with onlookers, dated 20 BCE.<ref>Dated 20 BCE in Fig.200 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.200|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
1st Jaina Tirthankara Rishabhanatha torso - Circa 1st Century
Four-fold Jain image with Suparshvanath and three other Tirthankaras - Circa 1st Century CE
Goat-headed Jain Mother Goddess, circa 1st Century CE
The Jina Parsvanatha ayagapata, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum.<ref name="SRQ200">{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=200–201|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref name=""/>
"Sihanāṃdikā ayagapata", Jain votive plate, dated 25-50 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=410, Fig. 156|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.21|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
Jain votive plaque with Jain stupa, the "Vasu Śilāpaṭa" ayagapata, 1st century CE, excavated from Kankali Tila, Mathura.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.26|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
thumb|upright=1.5|Jain relief showing monks of the ardhaphalaka sect. Early 1st century CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=174–176|url=|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|Jain decorated tympanum from Kankali Tila, Mathura, 15 CE.<ref>Dated 15 CE in Fig.222 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.222|url=|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|"Persian Achaemenian" style capitals appearing in ayagapatas, Mathura, 15-50 CE.<ref>"the massive pillars in the Persian Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|last1=Shah|first1=Chimanlal Jaichand|title=Jainism in north India, 800 B.C.-A.D. 526|date=1932|publisher=Longmans, Green and co.|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>"The Ayagapata which had been set up by Simhanddika, anterior to the reign of Kanishka, and which is assignable to a period not later than 1 A.D., is worth notice because of the typical pillars in the Persian-Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|title=Bulletin of the Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery|date=1949|publisher=Baroda Museum|page=18|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Kumar|first1=Ajit|title=Bharhut Sculptures and their untenable Sunga Association|journal=Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology|date=2014|volume=2|pages=223‐241|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Sivayasa Ayagapata, with Jain stupa fragment, Kankali Tila, 75-100 CE.
The Vasu doorjamb, dedicated to Vāsudeva "in the reign of Sodasa", Mathura, circa 15 CE. Mathura Museum, GMM 13.367
Reliefs of the Mora doorjamb with grapevine design, Mora, near Mathura, circa 15 CE. State Museum Lucknow, SML J.526. Similar scroll designs are known [[:File:Gandhara floral scrolls.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Pataliputra scroll.jpg|from Pataliputra]], and [[:File:South_Arabian_-_Relief_with_Vines_-_Walters_2167.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Garland bearers and Buddhist "Romaka" Jataka, in which the Buddha in a previous life was a pigeon.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-474-1930-3|page=226|url=|language=en}}</ref> 25-50 CE.<ref>Dated 25-50 CE in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig. 288|url=|language=en}}</ref> Similar garland-bearer designs are known [[:File:Peshawar Museum Yakshas and Garlands.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Amaravati garland bearer.jpg|from Amaravati]] and [[:File:Greco-Roman garland bearers.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Monumental statue of Vima Kadphises, 1st century CE, Mathura Museum
Statue of the Saka Prince Chastana, with costume details. 2nd century CE. Mathura Museum
Kushan devotee, Mathura Museum
Saka or Kushan Prince in pointed cap. Mathura Museum
The coiled tuft of hair, known as "Kapardin".
Seated Bodhisattva, inscribed "Year 32" of Kanishka (159 CE), Mathura.<ref name="Bodhisattvas and Buddhas: Early Bud">{{cite journal|last1=Myer|first1=Prudence R.|title=Bodhisattvas and Buddhas: Early Buddhist Images from Mathurā|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=1986|volume=47|issue=2|pages=107–142|doi=10.2307/3249969|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249969 }}</ref>
The "Anyor Buddha": one of the two known "Kapardin" statues mentioning "the Buddha": "Susha (...) gave this Buddha image",<ref>{{cite book|title=Annual report 1909-10|page=65|url=}}</ref>
Standing Buddha of the "Kapardin" type. Early Kushan period.
Type of the Brussels Buddha, a similar Buddhist triad from Gandhara, probably also dating to the year 5 of Kanishka.
"Maholi Buddha": an early experiment with the "Samghati" type, using a checkered design, circa 150 CE.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Myer|first1=Prudence R.|title=Bodhisattvas and Buddhas: Early Buddhist Images from Mathurā|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=1986|volume=47|issue=2|pages=139, Fig. 22|doi=10.2307/3249969|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249969 }}</ref>
The Buddha in checkered monastic dress in the "Subjugation of Nalagiri", Bhutesvara Yakshis, 2nd century CE, Mathura.
thumb|"Anyor Buddha" in Gandhara style, with inscription "year 51" (178 CE). Mathura.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Myer|first1=Prudence R.|title=Bodhisattvas and Buddhas: Early Buddhist Images from Mathurā|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=1986|volume=47|issue=2|pages=138, Fig.20|doi=10.2307/3249969|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249969 }}</ref>
"Buddha Refuses Anupama", late Kushan.
The Buddha in meditation, late Kushan. Mathura.
Decorated tympanum showing the Bodhisattva Maitreya, from Jamalpur Tila, Mathura, 150 CE.<ref>Dated 150 CE in Fig.287 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Bodhisattva Maitreya (water bottle on left thigh), Mathura, 2nd century CE.
Ornate Bodhisattva with inscription of "Year 28 of Kushan King Vasishka".
Bejewelled Bodhisattva, 3rd–early 4th century.<ref>{{cite web|title=Crowned Bodhisattva 3rd–early 4th century|url=|}}</ref>
Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara holding lotus flower.
Bacchanalian scene. Mathura
Bacchanalian/ Kubera scene. A man in Scythian/ Kushan costume appears behind Kubera in this scene (on the right)<ref>The Art of the Kushans, Rosenfield, University of California Press 1967</ref>
Image of a Nāga between two Nāgīs, inscribed in "the year 8 of Emperor Kanishka". 135 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Sircar|first1=Dineschandra|title=Studies in the Religious Life of Ancient and Medieval India|date=1971|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publ.|isbn=978-81-208-2790-5|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Sastri|first1=H. krishna|title=Epigraphia Indica Vol-17|date=1923|pages=11–15|url=}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Luders|first1=Heinrich|title=Mathura Inscriptions|date=1961|pages=148–149|url=}}</ref>
A Mathura relief showing the complete life of the Buddha, from birth to death. The clothing is Gandharan. 2nd Century CE
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion discovered in Mathura. For a recent photograph see . Early 2nd century CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Bachhofer|first1=Ludwig|title=Early Indian sculpture vol.2|date=1929|page=Notice 97|url=}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Harle|first1=James C.|title=The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent|date=1994|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=978-0-300-06217-5|page=68|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Mathura ca. 2nd century CE. On the reverse are sculpted scenes of the life of the Buddha, wearing the monastic dress.
Sun God Surya, also revered in Buddhism, Kushan Period
Shiva Linga worshipped by Indo-Scythian,<ref name="PPG128">{{cite journal|last1=Paul|first1=Pran Gopal|last2=Paul|first2=Debjani|title=Brahmanical Imagery in the Kuṣāṇa Art of Mathurā: Tradition and Innovations|journal=East and West|date=1989|volume=39|issue=1/4|page=128|issn=0012-8376|jstor=29756891 }}</ref> or Kushan devotees, 2nd century CE.
War God Karttikeya and Fire God Agni, Kushan Period, 1st century CE
The Hindu God Shiva, 3rd century CE. Mathura or Ahichchhatra.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Pal|first1=Pratapaditya|title=Indian sculpture, Volume 1|date=1986|page=199|url=}}</ref>
Kushan-era image of Shashthi between Skanda and Vishakha, c. 2nd century CE
Three-faced four-armed Oesho with attributes, often identified with Shiva, on a coin of Huvishka.<ref name="JMR93">{{cite book|last1=Rosenfield|first1=John M.|title=The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans|date=1967|publisher=University of California Press|page=93|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Parshvanatha, Kushan Period
Goat-faced God Harinaigamesha, Kushan Period, Mathura
Jain god of Childbirth Naigamesha, 1st-3rd century CE.<ref>"Naigamesa was a popular deity in the Kushana period and we have at least eight figures of this god from Mathura assignable to c. 1st to 3rd century A.D. (GMM., E. 1, 15.909, 15, 1001, 15. 1046, 15. 1115, 34.2402, 34. 2547, SML., J 626, etc)" in {{cite book|last1=Joshi|first1=Nilakanth Purushottam|title=Mātr̥kās, Mothers in Kuṣāṇa Art|date=1986|publisher=Kanak Publications|page=41|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Jina in Meditation, Kushan Period, Mathura
Tirthankara Head, Kushan Period, Mathura
Tirthankara Head, Kushan Period, Mathura
Standing Buddha, late 5th century
Standing Buddha, Gupta dynasty, 320–485, Mathura
Standing Buddha, inscribed Gupta Era year 115 (434 CE), Mathura.<ref>{{cite web|title=Collections-Virtual Museum of Images and Sounds|url=||publisher=American Institute of Indian Studies}}</ref>
Head of a Buddha, 6th century.
Vishnu Caturanana ("Four-Armed"), 5th century, Mathura
Bust of Brahma, Circa 6th Century CE
Ganesha, Gupta Period, Mathura
Seated Jain Tirthankara, circa 5th Century CE, Mathura.
Chaumkha, LACMA, circa 6th Century CE
Rishabhanatha, circa 6th Century CE
Parshvanatha, circa 6th Century CE
Colossal Head of Jina, Gupta Period, Jain temple of Kankali Tila
Chaumkha, Mathura Museum, circa 6th Century CE
Balarama from Mathura, Early Medieval period (8th-13th century CE).
Sarvatobhadra Shiva Linga Representing Brahma Vishnu Maheshwar and Surya, Circa 9th Century CE
Architectural Fragment with Divine Figures, circa 10th century CE
Decorative Door Jamb - Medieval Period
Durga, Medieval Period
Fire God, Medieval Period
Four-armed Seated Vishnu in Meditation, Mediaeval Period
Standing Surya, Medieval Period
Standing Twin Vishnu, Circa 10th Century CE
Ten-armed Ganesha, Medieval Period
1st Jain Tirthankara Rishabhanatha, Circa 8th Century CE, Barsana
Ambika, Medieval Period
Jain Goddess Chakreshwari, Kankali Mound, Circa 10th Century CE
Jain Tirthankara Parshwanath, inscribed 1014 CE, Kagarol
Jain Tirthankara Neminath, Circa 12th Century CE
Balarama, circa 18th Century CE
Krishna Lifting Govardhan Mound, circa 19th Century CE
Lakshmi Narayan Seated on Garuda - Bronze - Circa 18th Century CE
Lord Krishna Killing to Kaliyanaga Demon, Bronze, Modern Age
Man Milking Cow with Calf, Bronze, Modern Age
Stupa, Bronze, Modern Age
Kartikeya, Modern Period

Before the creation of an image of the Buddha, probably around the 1st century CE, Indian Buddhist art, as seen in Bharhut or Sanchi, had essentially been aniconic, avoiding representation of the Buddha, but rather relying on its symbols, such as the Wheel of the Law or the Bodhi tree.

Gautama Buddha

Ancient Indian philosopher, ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.
Seated Buddha from Tapa Shotor monastery in Hadda, Afghanistan, 2nd century CE
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BCE)
Inscription "The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni" (Brahmi script: 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁄 𑀲𑀓𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺𑀦𑁄 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑁄, Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho) on a relief showing the "empty" Illumination Throne of the Buddha in the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
One of the earliest anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, here surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right). Bimaran Casket, mid-1st century CE, British Museum.
Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period
The legendary Jataka collections depict the Buddha-to-be in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara, making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood.
Map showing Lumbini and other major Buddhist sites in India. Lumbini (present-day Nepal), is the birthplace of the Buddha, and is a holy place also for many non-Buddhists.
The Lumbini pillar contains an inscription stating that this is the Buddha's birthplace
The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period
Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes a sramana. Borobudur, 8th century
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in Wat Suthat in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha at Bodh Gaya, as recreated by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairañjanā. The Buddha is not visible (aniconism), only represented by a path on the water, and his empty throne bottom right. Sanchi.
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples
The chief disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana (chief in psychic power) and Sariputta (chief in wisdom).
The remains of a section of Jetavana Monastery, just outside of ancient Savatthi, in Uttar Pradesh.
Mahāprajāpatī, the first bhikkuni and Buddha's stepmother, ordains
This East Javanese relief depicts the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda, his chief attendant.
Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century CE, gray schist
Mahaparinibbana scene, from the Ajanta caves
Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).
Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads: ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... (Brahmi script: ...𑀲𑀮𑀺𑀮𑀦𑀺𑀥𑀸𑀦𑁂 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑀲 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁂...) "Relics of the Buddha Lord".
The Bodhisattva meets with Alara Kalama, Borobudur relief.
Gandharan Buddhist birchbark scroll fragments
Buddha meets a Brahmin, at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Schist Buddha statue with the famed Ye Dharma Hetu dhāraṇī around the head, which was used as a common summary of Dependent Origination. It states: "Of those experiences that arise from a cause, The Tathāgata has said: 'this is their cause, And this is their cessation': This is what the Great Śramaṇa teaches."
Gandharan sculpture depicting the Buddha in the full lotus seated meditation posture, 2nd-3rd century CE
Buddha Statues from Gal Vihara. The Early Buddhist texts also mention meditation practice while standing and lying down.
The Buddha on a coin of Kushan ruler Kanishka I, c. 130 CE.
Buddhist monks from Nepal. According to the earliest sources, the Buddha looked like a typical shaved man from northeast India.
Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation
Christ and Buddha by Paul Ranson, 1880
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha, from railing of the Bharhut Stupa, Shunga dynasty, early 2nd century BC.
Adoration of the Diamond Throne and the Bodhi Tree, Bharhut.
Descent of the Buddha from the Trayastrimsa Heaven, Sanchi Stupa No. 1.
The Buddha's Miracle at Kapilavastu, Sanchi Stupa 1.
Bimbisara visiting the Buddha (represented as empty throne) at the Bamboo garden in Rajagriha
The great departure with riderless horse, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
The Assault of Mara, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
Isapur Buddha, one of the earliest physical depictions of the Buddha, c. 15 CE.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Quintanilla |first1=Sonya Rhie |title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=9789004155374 |pages=199–206, 204 for the exact date |url=}}</ref> Art of Mathura
The Buddha attended by Indra at Indrasala Cave, Mathura 50-100 CE.
Buddha Preaching in Tushita Heaven. Amaravati, Satavahana period, 2d century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara.
Gandharan Buddha with Vajrapani-Herakles.
Kushan period Buddha Triad.
Buddha statue from Sanchi.
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE.
The Infant Buddha Taking A Bath, Gandhara 2nd century CE.
6th century Gandharan Buddha.
Buddha at Cave No. 6, Ajanta Caves.
Standing Buddha, c. 5th Century CE.
Sarnath standing Buddha, 5th century CE.
Seated Buddha, Gupta period.
Seated Buddha at Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka.
Chinese Stele with Sakyamuni and Bodhisattvas, Wei period, 536 CE.
The Shakyamuni Daibutsu Bronze, c. 609, Nara, Japan.
Amaravati style Buddha of Srivijaya period, Palembang, Indonesia, 7th century.
Korean Seokguram Cave Buddha, c. 774 CE.
Seated Buddha Vairocana flanked by Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani of Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia, early 9th century.
Buddha in the exposed stupa of Borobudur mandala, Central Java, Indonesia, c. 825.
Vairocana Buddha of Srivijaya style, Southern Thailand, 9th century.
Seated Buddha, Japan, Heian period, 9th-10th century.
Attack of Mara, 10th century, Dunhuang.
Cambodian Buddha with Mucalinda Nāga, c. 1100 CE, Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia
15th century Sukhothai Buddha.
15th century Sukhothai Walking Buddha.
Sakyamuni, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, c. from 1368 until 1644.
Chinese depiction of Shakyamuni, 1600.
Shakyamuni Buddha with Avadana Legend Scenes, Tibetan, 19th century
Golden Thai Buddha statue, Bodh Gaya.
Gautama statue, Shanyuan Temple, Liaoning Province, China.
Burmese style Buddha, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon.
Large Gautama Buddha statue in Buddha Park of Ravangla.

"Sakamuni" is also mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to c. 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho ("The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni").