# Bias (statistics)

biasbiasedstatistical biasunbiased biasedbiasesdetection biasdoes not reflect the populationExclusion biasselective reporting
Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.wikipedia
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### Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.
Many of these errors are classified as random (noise) or systematic (bias), but other types of errors (e.g., blunder, such as when an analyst reports incorrect units) can also occur.

### Sampling bias

ascertainment biasbiased samplebias
In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population have a lower sampling probability than others.

### Spectrum bias

Mathematically, the spectrum bias is a sampling bias and not a traditional statistical bias; this has led some authors to refer to the phenomenon as spectrum effects, whilst others maintain it is a bias if the true performance of the test differs from that which is 'expected'.

### Observer bias

experimenter's biasexperimenter biasdid not meet their preconceptions
In research, observer bias is a form of detection bias originating at a study's stage of observing or recording information.

### Expected value

expectationexpectedmean
Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

### Parameter

parametersparametricargument
Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

### Estimation theory

parameter estimationestimationestimated
Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

### Statistic

sample statisticempiricalmeasure

### Statistical parameter

parametersparameterparametrization

### Selection bias

selection effectselectionbias

### Sensitivity and specificity

sensitivityspecificitysensitive

### Bias of an estimator

unbiasedunbiased estimatorbias

### Omitted-variable bias

omitted variable biasomitted variablesomitted variable

### Statistical hypothesis testing

hypothesis testingstatistical teststatistical tests

### Syndemic

directly relatedsyndemism

### Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight

### Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics

### Educational measurement

educational achievementofficial dataTests and Measurement

### Funding bias

Industry Funded Studiesinfluenced the outcome

### Reporting bias

selective reportingOutcome reporting biasunderestimate

### Cognitive bias

cognitive biasesbiascognitive

### Observational error

systematic errormeasurement errorsystematic bias

### Bias

biasesunbiasedbiased
Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average.

### Heckman correction

Heckit modelHeckman selection correctionHeckman selection model
The Heckman correction is a statistical technique to correct bias from non-randomly selected samples or otherwise incidentally truncated dependent variables, a pervasive issue in quantitative social sciences when using observational data.