# Bias (statistics)

**biasbiasedstatistical biasunbiased biasedbiasesdetection biasdoes not reflect the populationExclusion biasselective reporting**

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.wikipedia

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### Statistics

**statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician**

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

Many of these errors are classified as random (noise) or systematic (bias), but other types of errors (e.g., blunder, such as when an analyst reports incorrect units) can also occur.

### Sampling bias

**ascertainment biasbiased samplebias**

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population have a lower sampling probability than others.

### Spectrum bias

Mathematically, the spectrum bias is a sampling bias and not a traditional statistical bias; this has led some authors to refer to the phenomenon as spectrum effects, whilst others maintain it is a bias if the true performance of the test differs from that which is 'expected'.

### Observer bias

**experimenter's biasexperimenter biasdid not meet their preconceptions**

In research, observer bias is a form of detection bias originating at a study's stage of observing or recording information.

### Expected value

**expectationexpectedmean**

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

### Parameter

**parametersparametricargument**

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

### Estimation theory

**parameter estimationestimationestimated**

### Statistic

**sample statisticempiricalmeasure**

### Statistical parameter

**parametersparameterparametrization**

### Selection bias

**selection effectselectionbias**

### Sensitivity and specificity

**sensitivityspecificitysensitive**

### Bias of an estimator

**unbiasedunbiased estimatorbias**

### Omitted-variable bias

**omitted variable biasomitted variablesomitted variable**

### Statistical hypothesis testing

**hypothesis testingstatistical teststatistical tests**

### Syndemic

**directly relatedsyndemism**

### Obesity

**obesemorbidly obeseoverweight**

### Diabetes

**diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics**

### Educational measurement

**educational achievementofficial dataTests and Measurement**

### Funding bias

**Industry Funded Studiesinfluenced the outcome**

### Reporting bias

**selective reportingOutcome reporting biasunderestimate**

### Cognitive bias

**cognitive biasesbiascognitive**

### Observational error

**systematic errormeasurement errorsystematic bias**

### Bias

**biasesunbiasedbiased**

Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average.

### Heckman correction

**Heckit modelHeckman selection correctionHeckman selection model**

The Heckman correction is a statistical technique to correct bias from non-randomly selected samples or otherwise incidentally truncated dependent variables, a pervasive issue in quantitative social sciences when using observational data.