A report on Biblical Hebrew and Tetragrammaton

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts
Coin issued during the Bar Kokhba revolt. The Paleo-Hebrew text reads שמעון "Simeon" on the front and לחרות ירושלם "for the freedom of Jerusalem" on the back.
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
YHWH in one of the Lachish letters
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE", which in contemporary letters is "IEUE".
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.
A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa
The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

The letters, properly written and read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew), are:

- Tetragrammaton

Some Qumran texts written in the Assyrian script write the tetragrammaton and some other divine names in Paleo-Hebrew, and this practice is also found in several Jewish-Greek biblical translations.

- Biblical Hebrew

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Photograph of section of the Zayit Stone, 10th century BCE: (right-to-left) the letters waw, he, het, zayin, tet

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

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Writing system found in Canaanite inscriptions from the region of biblical Israel and Judah.

Writing system found in Canaanite inscriptions from the region of biblical Israel and Judah.

Photograph of section of the Zayit Stone, 10th century BCE: (right-to-left) the letters waw, he, het, zayin, tet
Paleo-Hebrew signet ring discovered in Jerusalem's City of David. City of David Archive, Eliyahu Yannai
Gezer calendar
Drawing of the Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon
Illustration of script on one of the Ketef Hinnom scrolls, circa 700 BCE—the "Silver Scroll"
Coin from the Bar Kokhba revolt with the Paleo-Hebrew writings. The letters are on one side and on the other, meaning 'freedom to Jerusalem' and the name 'Shimon' (חרות לירושל[י]ם and שמע[ו]ן in modern Hebrew).
The word "Hebrew" (עברית ʿbryt, modern Hebrew: Ivrit) written in the modern Hebrew alphabet (top), and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
A page from the Samaritan version of Leviticus
YHD, for Yehud, written in Paleo-Hebrew on the 1 New Shekel coin (1986)
The Siloam inscription

The oldest inscriptions identifiable as Biblical Hebrew have long been limited to the 8th century BCE.

In some Qumran documents, the tetragrammaton name of the Israelite deity, YHWH, is written in Paleo-Hebrew while the rest of the text is rendered in the adopted Aramaic square script that became today’s normative Jewish Hebrew script.

Samaritans

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Ethnoreligious group who claim to originate from the ancient Israelites.

Ethnoreligious group who claim to originate from the ancient Israelites.

Foreigners eaten by lions in Samaria, illustration by Gustave Doré from the 1866 La Sainte Bible, The Holy Bible
Ancient inscription in Samaritan Hebrew. From a photo c. 1900 by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Mosaic from Samaritan synagogue (Israel Museum)
Samaritan worship centre on Mount Gerizim. From a photo c. 1900 by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Yitzhaq ben Amram ben Shalma ben Tabia, the High Priest of the Samaritans, Nablus, c. 1920.
Interior of the Synagogue of the Samaritans in Nablus, c. 1920.
Sofi Tsedaka, an Israeli actress from the Samaritan community
During the entire week following the Feast of the Passover, the Samaritans remain encamped on Mount Gerizim. On the last day of the encampment, they begin at dawn a pilgrimage to the crest of the sacred mount. Before setting forth on this pilgrimage, however, the men spread their cloths and repeat the creed and the story of the Creation in silence, after which, in loud voice they read the Book of Genesis and the first quarter of the Book of Exodus, ending with the story of the Passover and the flight from Egypt
— John D. Whiting
 The National Geographic Magazine, Jan 1920
A Samaritan and the Samaritan Torah
The current Samaritan High Priest: "Aabed El Ben Asher Ben Matzliach", 133rd generation since Elazar the Son of Aaron The Priest, from the line of Ithamar. In priestly office 2013-present.
Samaritans celebrating Passover on Mount Gerizim in the West Bank
Samaritans pray before the Holy Rock on Mount Gerizim
Ruins on Mount Gerizim c. 1880.
The Samaritan mezuzah engraved above the front door
Samaritans, from a photo c. 1900 by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
The Samaritan, engraving, c, by Ephraim Moses Lilien. 1920
Sukkot on Mount Gerizim
Entrance to a modern Samaritan synagogue in the city of Holon, Israel

Biblical Hebrew Šomerim (السامريون) 'Guardians' (singular Šomer) comes from the Hebrew Semitic root שמר, which means 'to watch, guard'.

There is one God, YHWH or in Samaritan language "Shehmaa", the same God recognized by the Hebrew prophets.