Biblical judges

Judgesjudgebiblical judgejudgedchieftainsJudge of IsraelJudge of pre-monarchic Israeljudged IsraelJudges of Israeljudging
The biblical judges are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.wikipedia
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Book of Judges

JudgesShofetimBooks of Judges
The biblical judges are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established. The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson. A cyclical pattern is regularly recounted in the Book of Judges to show the need for the various judges: apostasy of the Israelite people, hardship brought on as punishment from God, crying out to the Lord for rescue.
In the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, it covers the time between the conquest described in the Book of Joshua and the establishment of a kingdom in the Books of Samuel, during which Biblical judges served as temporary leaders.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelUnited Kingdom of Israel
The biblical scholar Kenneth Kitchen argues that, from the conquest of Canaan by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c.
According to the Book of Judges, before the rise of the united monarchy the Israelite tribes lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called judges.

Othniel

Othniel Ben Knazbiblical judgeCave of Othniel Ben Knaz
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Othniel (, Otniel ben Kenaz) was the first of the Biblical judges.

Gideon

GedeoneGideon/JerubbaalGideon’s
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Gideon or Gedeon, also named Jerubbaal, and Jerubbesheth, was a military leader, judge and prophet whose calling and victory over the Midianites are recounted in chapters 6 to 8 of the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible.

Ehud

the Hebrew judge
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Ehud ben‑Gera (, Tiberian ʾĒhûḏ ben‑Gērāʾ) is described in the biblical Book of Judges as a judge who was sent by God to deliver the Israelites from Moabite domination.

Tola (biblical figure)

Tola
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
According to the Bible, Tola was one of the Judges of Israel.

Deborah

Song of DeborahDeborah de ArimatéiaDeborah the prophetess
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
According to the Book of Judges, Deborah (, Devora, "Bee") was a prophetess of Yahweh the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, and the wife of Lapidoth.

Ibzan

The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Ibzan (אִבְצָן ’Iḇṣān; ; Abesan, meaning "illustrious") appears in the Hebrew Bible as the tenth of the Judges of Israel.

Samson

Sampsonbiblical figureSamson and Delilah
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Samson (, Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.

Jair

Ya'irYair
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
In the Biblical Book of Judges, Yair (Hebrew: יָאִיר Yā’îr, "he enlightens") was a man from Gilead of the Tribe of Manasseh, east of the River Jordan, who judged Israel for 22 years, after the death of Tola, who had ruled of 23 years.

Samuel

Prophet Samuel11 SamuelHannah and the Birth of Samuel
The First Book of Samuel mentions Eli and Samuel, as well as Joel and Abiah (two sons of Samuel).
Samuel is a figure who, in the narratives of the Hebrew Bible, plays a key role in the transition from the period of the biblical judges to the institution of a kingdom under Saul, and again in the transition from Saul to David.

Eli (biblical figure)

EliEli Ha-Kohensame name
The First Book of Samuel mentions Eli and Samuel, as well as Joel and Abiah (two sons of Samuel).
Eli is the high priest (kohen gadol) of Shiloh, the second-to-last Israelite judge (succeeded only by Samuel - see 1 Samuel 7:15) before the rule of the kings, therefore, the Shiloh tradition will become an old and lost tradition that when the prophet Jeremiah comes on the scene in the history of God's people, he will seek to renew and to bring back the way of the Shiloh tradition to the people of Israel because the kings have become wicked defiling the temple and tradition of God.

Shamgar

The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
1) at the first mention, Shamgar is identified as a Biblical Judge, who repelled Philistine incursions into Israelite regions, and slaughtered 600 of the invaders with an ox goad;

Elon (Judges)

Elon
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
In the Bible, Elon (or Ahialon in Douay–Rheims and some other translations) (Ahialon) is named in the Book of Judges as being a member of the Tribe of Zebulun who served as a judge of Israel for ten years, who followed Ibzan and was succeeded by Abdon.

Abdon (Judges)

Abdon
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Biblical judges

Jephthah

JephthaJephteJephthah's Daughter
The Book of Judges mentions twelve leaders who judged Israel: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson.
Biblical judges

Books of Samuel

1 Samuel2 SamuelSamuel
The First Book of Samuel mentions Eli and Samuel, as well as Joel and Abiah (two sons of Samuel).
Biblical judges

Hebrew Bible

biblicalBibleHebrew
The biblical judges are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.

Israelites

IsraeliteIsraelchildren of Israel
The biblical judges are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.

Apostasy

apostateapostatesapostatized
A cyclical pattern is regularly recounted in the Book of Judges to show the need for the various judges: apostasy of the Israelite people, hardship brought on as punishment from God, crying out to the Lord for rescue.

Divine retribution

wrath of Goddivine wrathGod's wrath
A cyclical pattern is regularly recounted in the Book of Judges to show the need for the various judges: apostasy of the Israelite people, hardship brought on as punishment from God, crying out to the Lord for rescue.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
While judge is a literalistic translation of the Hebrew term used in the Masoretic text, the position as described is more one of unelected non-hereditary leadership than that of legal pronouncement.

Masoretic Text

MasoreticMasorahMasoretic tradition
While judge is a literalistic translation of the Hebrew term used in the Masoretic text, the position as described is more one of unelected non-hereditary leadership than that of legal pronouncement.

Cyrus H. Gordon

Cyrus GordonGordon, Cyrus Herzl
However, Cyrus H. Gordon argued that they may have come from among the hereditary leaders of the fighting, landed and ruling aristocracy, like the kings (basileis) in Homer.

Basileus

Emperorbasileisbasilissa
However, Cyrus H. Gordon argued that they may have come from among the hereditary leaders of the fighting, landed and ruling aristocracy, like the kings (basileis) in Homer.