Big Bend National Park

Big BendBig Bend National Park, TexasBig Bend Biosphere Reserve and National ParkBig Bend N.P.Big Bend of TexasBig Bend State Park
For the Texas State Park see Big Bend Ranch State Park.wikipedia
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Orogeny

Upliftorogenicorogen
The oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events (over 550 Mya) possibly have some deep control.

Proterozoic

Proterozoic EonLate ProterozoicProterozoic Era
The oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events (over 550 Mya) possibly have some deep control.

Year

myaMay
The oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events (over 550 Mya) possibly have some deep control.

Ouachita orogeny

OuachitaOuachita UpliftOuachita orogen
The Marathon orogeny (part of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogenic belt) is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate.

Thrust fault

thrustthrustingoverthrust
The Marathon orogeny (part of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogenic belt) is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate. This period of (now east-west) compression caused the northeast-facing Mesa de Anguila (an uplifted monocline on the park's southwest margin), the southwest-facing Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains (an uplifted and thrust-faulted monocline that forms the park's boundary on the east) and the Tornillo Basin.

South American Plate

South America PlateSouth AmericanSouth America
The Marathon orogeny (part of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogenic belt) is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate.

North American Plate

North AmericanNorth American tectonic plateNorth America
The Marathon orogeny (part of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogenic belt) is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate.

Triassic

Triassic PeriodLate TriassicMiddle to Late Triassic
This orogenic event is linked to the lack of Triassic- and Jurassic-age rocks in the park.

Jurassic

Jurassic PeriodLate JurassicJurassic era
This orogenic event is linked to the lack of Triassic- and Jurassic-age rocks in the park.

Cretaceous

Cretaceous PeriodMiddle CretaceousEarly Cretaceous
Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous, the South American Plate rifted from the North American Plate, resulting in the deposition of the Glen Rose Limestone, Del Carmen Limestone, Sue Peaks Formation, Santa Elena Limestone, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and Boquillas formations (preserved in the Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains, Nine Point Mesa, Mariscal Mountain, and Mesa de Anguila areas).

Rift

riftingrift basinchasm
Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous, the South American Plate rifted from the North American Plate, resulting in the deposition of the Glen Rose Limestone, Del Carmen Limestone, Sue Peaks Formation, Santa Elena Limestone, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and Boquillas formations (preserved in the Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains, Nine Point Mesa, Mariscal Mountain, and Mesa de Anguila areas).

Gulf of Mexico

GulfGulf CoastMexican Gulf
Also during this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting.

Strike and dip

strikedipdipping
Also during this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting.

Fault (geology)

faultfaultsstrike-slip
Also during this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting.

Dinosaur

dinosaursDinosaurianon-avian dinosaurs
As a result of this depositional time, dinosaur, forest and other fossils are preserved in the park.

Cenozoic

Cenozoic EraCainozoicAge of Mammals
Following the ending of rifting in the Late Cretaceous to the early Cenozoic, the Big Bend area was subjected to the Laramide orogeny.

Laramide orogeny

LaramideLaramide orogeniesLaramide compression
Following the ending of rifting in the Late Cretaceous to the early Cenozoic, the Big Bend area was subjected to the Laramide orogeny.

Monocline

monoclinalmonoclinal flexuremonoclinal fold
This period of (now east-west) compression caused the northeast-facing Mesa de Anguila (an uplifted monocline on the park's southwest margin), the southwest-facing Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains (an uplifted and thrust-faulted monocline that forms the park's boundary on the east) and the Tornillo Basin.

Volcanic rock

volcaniclava rockvolcanic rocks
During the middle Cenozoic, most of the volcanic rocks, including the Chisos group, the Pine Canyon caldera complex, and the Burro Mesa Formation, formed.

Basin and range topography

basin and rangeBasin and Range Provincebasin
The most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary.

Neogene

Neogene PeriodUpper TertiaryLate Tertiary
The most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary.

Quaternary

Quaternary PeriodQuaternary agelast 2.5 million years
The most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary.

Erosion

erodedglacial erosioneroding
The Rio Grande has entered the Big Bend area roughly 2 million years ago, and since then, extensive erosion and downcutting have occurred.

Mesoamerican chronology

Classic periodPostclassicLate Classic
Cultural resources in the park range from the Paleo-Indian period 10,500 years ago through the historic period represented by Native American groups, such as the Chisos, Mescaleros, and Comanche.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Cultural resources in the park range from the Paleo-Indian period 10,500 years ago through the historic period represented by Native American groups, such as the Chisos, Mescaleros, and Comanche.