A report on Rhythm and bluesJazz and Big Joe Turner

Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946
American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology
Turner performing, 1973
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo (lower notes) with the backbeat (upper note)
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz" from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Turner performing in the 1955 film Rock 'n' Roll Revue
Fats Domino in 1956
Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club.
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmic reference.
Al Jolson in 1929
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time
Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the essence of clave in African American music
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley beat" is a clave-based motif.
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones
Ray Charles in 1971
Scott Joplin in 1903
Ruth Brown was known as the "Queen of R&B"
W. C. Handy at 19, 1892
Della Reese
The Bolden Band around 1905
Sam Cooke
Jelly Roll Morton, in Los Angeles, California, c. 1917 or 1918
Eric Burdon & the Animals (1964)
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
Louis Armstrong began his career in New Orleans and became one of jazz's most recognizable performers.
Benny Goodman (1943)
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club (1943)
The "classic quintet": Charlie Parker, Tommy Potter, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, and Max Roach performing at Three Deuces in New York City. Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (August 1947), Library of Congress.
Machito (maracas) and his sister Graciella Grillo (claves)
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Art Blakey (1973)
John Coltrane, 1963
Peter Brötzmann is a key figure in European free jazz.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Randy Weston
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
V pentatonic scale over II–V–I chord progression
Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989
Wynton Marsalis
David Sanborn, 2008
John Zorn performing in 2006
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music ... [with a] heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.

- Rhythm and blues

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of hard bop, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues to small groups and particularly to saxophone and piano.

- Jazz

Eventually they were seen by the talent scout John Hammond in 1938, who invited them back to New York to appear in one of his From Spirituals to Swing concerts at Carnegie Hall, which were instrumental in introducing jazz and blues to a wider American audience.

- Big Joe Turner

Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, and Wynonie Harris, is now also referred to as jump blues.

- Rhythm and blues

During his career, Turner was part of the transition from big bands to jump blues to rhythm and blues to rock and roll.

- Big Joe Turner

Other younger performers, such as singer Big Joe Turner and saxophonist Louis Jordan, who were discouraged by bebop's increasing complexity, pursued more lucrative endeavors in rhythm and blues, jump blues, and eventually rock and roll.

- Jazz
Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"

Blues

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Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"
A minor pentatonic scale;
Musicologist John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
Sheet music from "Saint Louis Blues" (1914)
Bessie Smith, an early blues singer, known for her powerful voice
A typical boogie-woogie bass line
John Lee Hooker
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"
Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan, 1983
Italian singer Zucchero is credited as the "Father of Italian Blues", and is among the few European blues artists who still enjoy international success.
Eric Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London, in June 2008
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Ellington extensively used the blues form.
The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.

The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common.

Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner, based in Kansas City, Missouri, influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues.

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll

Rock and roll

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Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll
Chuck Berry in 1957
Bill Haley and his Comets performing in the 1954 Universal International film Round Up of Rhythm
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957
Little Richard in 1957
Buddy Holly and his band, the Crickets.
Tommy Steele, one of the first British rock and rollers, performing in Stockholm in 1957
"There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" made the cover of True Life Romance in 1956

It originated from African-American music such as jazz, rhythm and blues, boogie woogie, gospel, as well as country music.

One particularly noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll 'Em Pete, which is regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll.

Jordan in New York, July 1946

Jump blues

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Up-tempo style of blues, usually played by small groups and featuring horn instruments.

Up-tempo style of blues, usually played by small groups and featuring horn instruments.

Jordan in New York, July 1946
Louis Jordan's Tympany Five
Lionel Hampton

It was popular in the 1940s and was a precursor of rhythm and blues and rock and roll.

Blues and jazz were part of the same musical world, with many musicians straddling both genres.

Jump was especially popular in the late 1940s and early 1950s, through artists such as Louis Jordan, Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Charles Brown, Helen Humes, T-Bone Walker, Roy Milton, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, Louis Prima, and Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee.

Basie at the piano, 1955, in a photographic portrait by James J. Kriegsmann

Count Basie

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Basie at the piano, 1955, in a photographic portrait by James J. Kriegsmann
Basie and band, with vocalist Ethel Waters, from the film Stage Door Canteen (1943)
Basie in Rhythm and Blues Revue (1955)
Count Basie (left) in concert (Cologne 1975)
Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank, New Jersey

William James "Count" Basie (August 21, 1904 – April 26, 1984) was an African-American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer.

Basie favored blues, and he would showcase some of the most notable blues singers of the era after he went to New York: Billie Holiday, Jimmy Rushing, Big Joe Turner, Helen Humes, and Joe Williams.

The jukebox era had begun, and Basie shared the exposure along with early rock'n'roll and rhythm and blues artists.