A report on Bihar and Bodh Gaya

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The Bodhi Tree under which Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained Enlightenment
(Sitting L to R): Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha
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Kathak classical dance form, from Bhojpur region
Mahabodhi temple, built under the Gupta Empire, 6th century CE.
Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat
Buddhist monks meditating in Bodh Gaya
Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna
Illustration of the temple built by Asoka at Bodh-Gaya around the Bodhi tree. Sculpture of the Satavahana period at Sanchi, 1st century CE.
NIT Patna main building

Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.

- Bodh Gaya

Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word, later known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km (43 mi) away from Bodh Gaya.

- Bihar

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Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.

Maurya Empire

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Geographically extensive ancient Indian Iron Age historical power in South Asia based in Magadha, having been founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE.

Geographically extensive ancient Indian Iron Age historical power in South Asia based in Magadha, having been founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE.

Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.
Pataliputra, capital of the Mauryas. Ruins of pillared hall at Kumrahar site.
Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.
The Pataliputra capital, discovered at the Bulandi Bagh site of Pataliputra, 4th–3rd c. BCE.
A silver coin of 1 karshapana of the Maurya empire, period of Bindusara Maurya about 297–272 BC, workshop of Pataliputra. Obv: Symbols with a sun. Rev: Symbol. Dimensions: 14 × 11 mm. Weight: 3.4 g.
Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. c. 250 BCE.
Ashoka pillar at Vaishali.
Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edict of Ashoka (238 BCE), in Brahmi, sandstone, British Museum.
Statuettes of the Mauryan era
Maurya statuette, 2nd century BCE.
Bhadrabahu Cave, Shravanabelagola where Chandragupta is said to have died
The stupa, which contained the relics of Buddha, at the center of the Sanchi complex was originally built by the Maurya Empire, but the balustrade around it is Sunga, and the decorative gateways are from the later Satavahana period.
The Dharmarajika stupa in Taxila, modern Pakistan, is also thought to have been established by Emperor Asoka.
Mauryan architecture in the Barabar Caves. Lomas Rishi Cave. 3rd century BCE.
An early stupa, 6 meters in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side. Chakpat, near Chakdara. Probably Maurya, 3rd century BCE.
The two Yakshas, possibly 3rd century BCE, found in Pataliputra. The two Brahmi inscriptions starting with Gupta ashoka y.svgGupta ashoka khe.jpg... (Yakhe... for "Yaksha...") are paleographically of a later date, circa 2nd century CE Kushan.
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd Century BCE
A map showing the north western border of Maurya Empire, including its various neighboring states.
Figure of a foreigner, found in Sarnath, 3rd century BCE. This is a probable member of the West Asian Pahlava or Saka elite in the Gangetic plains during the Mauryan period.
The Kandahar Edict of Ashoka, a bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar. Kabul Museum. (See image description page for translation.)
Hoard of mostly Mauryan coins.
Silver punch mark coin of the Maurya empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}}
Mauryan coin with arched hill symbol on reverse.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}}
Mauryan Empire coin. Circa late 4th-2nd century BCE.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}}
Mauryan Empire, Emperor Salisuka or later. Circa 207-194 BCE.<ref>CNG Coins {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170827130159/https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=304898 |date=27 August 2017 }}</ref>
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Pillar and its inscription (the "Schism Edict") upon discovery.
The capital nowadays.<ref>Described in Marshall p.25-28 Ashoka pillar.</ref>
The distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka.<ref>Reference: "India: The Ancient Past" p.113, Burjor Avari, Routledge, {{ISBN|0-415-35615-6}}</ref>
Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of Ashoka.
Territories "conquered by the Dharma" according to Major Rock Edict No. 13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).{{sfn|Kosmin|2014|p=57}}<ref name=ME368>Thomas Mc Evilly "The shape of ancient thought", Allworth Press, New York, 2002, p.368</ref>

The most important ones are located at Sanchi, Bharhut, Amaravati, Bodhgaya and Nagarjunakonda.

In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar).

Statue of Matrikas found near Agam Kuan, built by Ashoka.

Patna

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Patna (

Patna (

Statue of Matrikas found near Agam Kuan, built by Ashoka.
Main street of Patna, showing one side of the Chowk, 1814–15.
City of Patna, on the River Ganges, 19th-century painting.
Map of Patna district
Monsoon clouds over Priyadarshi Nagar, a part of Kankarbagh- residential area in Eastern Patna.
Maurya Lok is one of the oldest and major shopping area of the city
The Mahavir Mandir is a famous temple in Patna.
Bhootnath Road TV Tower broadcasts programming to Patna
Jay Prakash Narayan Airport, Patna
Patna Junction Railway Station, Patna
Magahi folk singers
Gandhi Maidan (shown above) lies in the heart of Patna and is the site for most political and social functions in the city.
Golghar was originally built to serve as a granary for the British East India company army during the famine of 1786. It now features an observation deck overlooking the Ganges and the city.
Sabhyata Dwar in Patna
Indian Institute of Technology Patna at Bihta, one of the premier institutes of engineering and research in India.
Patna College, established 1863, is considered to be the oldest institution of higher education in Bihar.
Moin-Ul-Haque Stadium near Rajendra Nagar, used for cricket and association football.
Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire.
Pataliputra as a capital of Maurya Empire. The Maurya Empire at its largest extent under Ashoka the Great.
Pataliputra as a capital of Shunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Shunga Empire (c. 185 BCE).
Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire.
Street in Patna, 1825 (British, active in India)
Golghar at Bankipore, near Patna, 1814–15
State Bank of India- Patna Regional office at East Gandhi Maidan Marg
Reserve Bank of India's regional office at South Gandhi Maidan Marg, Patna
A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival
People Celebrating Chhath Festival the 2nd Day at Morning a tribute to the rising holy God Sun
A game of cricket in progress
Kankarbagh Indoor Stadium at Patliputra Sports Complex during Pro Kabaddi League match

), historically known as Pataliputra, is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.

The Buddhist, Hindu and Jain pilgrimage centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna City is a sacred city for Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh was born here.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.

Gautama Buddha

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Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.
Seated Buddha from Tapa Shotor monastery in Hadda, Afghanistan, 2nd century CE
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BCE)
Inscription "The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni" (Brahmi script: 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁄 𑀲𑀓𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺𑀦𑁄 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑁄, Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho) on a relief showing the "empty" Illumination Throne of the Buddha in the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
One of the earliest anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, here surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right). Bimaran Casket, mid-1st century CE, British Museum.
Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period
The legendary Jataka collections depict the Buddha-to-be in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara, making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood.
Map showing Lumbini and other major Buddhist sites in India. Lumbini (present-day Nepal), is the birthplace of the Buddha, and is a holy place also for many non-Buddhists.
The Lumbini pillar contains an inscription stating that this is the Buddha's birthplace
The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period
Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes a sramana. Borobudur, 8th century
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in Wat Suthat in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha at Bodh Gaya, as recreated by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairañjanā. The Buddha is not visible (aniconism), only represented by a path on the water, and his empty throne bottom right. Sanchi.
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples
The chief disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana (chief in psychic power) and Sariputta (chief in wisdom).
The remains of a section of Jetavana Monastery, just outside of ancient Savatthi, in Uttar Pradesh.
Mahāprajāpatī, the first bhikkuni and Buddha's stepmother, ordains
This East Javanese relief depicts the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda, his chief attendant.
Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century CE, gray schist
Mahaparinibbana scene, from the Ajanta caves
Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).
Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads: ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... (Brahmi script: ...𑀲𑀮𑀺𑀮𑀦𑀺𑀥𑀸𑀦𑁂 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑀲 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁂...) "Relics of the Buddha Lord".
The Bodhisattva meets with Alara Kalama, Borobudur relief.
Gandharan Buddhist birchbark scroll fragments
Buddha meets a Brahmin, at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Schist Buddha statue with the famed Ye Dharma Hetu dhāraṇī around the head, which was used as a common summary of Dependent Origination. It states: "Of those experiences that arise from a cause, The Tathāgata has said: 'this is their cause, And this is their cessation': This is what the Great Śramaṇa teaches."
Gandharan sculpture depicting the Buddha in the full lotus seated meditation posture, 2nd-3rd century CE
Buddha Statues from Gal Vihara. The Early Buddhist texts also mention meditation practice while standing and lying down.
The Buddha on a coin of Kushan ruler Kanishka I, c. 130 CE.
Buddhist monks from Nepal. According to the earliest sources, the Buddha looked like a typical shaved man from northeast India.
Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation
Christ and Buddha by Paul Ranson, 1880
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha, from railing of the Bharhut Stupa, Shunga dynasty, early 2nd century BC.
Adoration of the Diamond Throne and the Bodhi Tree, Bharhut.
Descent of the Buddha from the Trayastrimsa Heaven, Sanchi Stupa No. 1.
The Buddha's Miracle at Kapilavastu, Sanchi Stupa 1.
Bimbisara visiting the Buddha (represented as empty throne) at the Bamboo garden in Rajagriha
The great departure with riderless horse, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
The Assault of Mara, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
Isapur Buddha, one of the earliest physical depictions of the Buddha, c. 15 CE.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Quintanilla |first1=Sonya Rhie |title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=9789004155374 |pages=199–206, 204 for the exact date |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA204}}</ref> Art of Mathura
The Buddha attended by Indra at Indrasala Cave, Mathura 50-100 CE.
Buddha Preaching in Tushita Heaven. Amaravati, Satavahana period, 2d century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara.
Gandharan Buddha with Vajrapani-Herakles.
Kushan period Buddha Triad.
Buddha statue from Sanchi.
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE.
The Infant Buddha Taking A Bath, Gandhara 2nd century CE.
6th century Gandharan Buddha.
Buddha at Cave No. 6, Ajanta Caves.
Standing Buddha, c. 5th Century CE.
Sarnath standing Buddha, 5th century CE.
Seated Buddha, Gupta period.
Seated Buddha at Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka.
Chinese Stele with Sakyamuni and Bodhisattvas, Wei period, 536 CE.
The Shakyamuni Daibutsu Bronze, c. 609, Nara, Japan.
Amaravati style Buddha of Srivijaya period, Palembang, Indonesia, 7th century.
Korean Seokguram Cave Buddha, c. 774 CE.
Seated Buddha Vairocana flanked by Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani of Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia, early 9th century.
Buddha in the exposed stupa of Borobudur mandala, Central Java, Indonesia, c. 825.
Vairocana Buddha of Srivijaya style, Southern Thailand, 9th century.
Seated Buddha, Japan, Heian period, 9th-10th century.
Attack of Mara, 10th century, Dunhuang.
Cambodian Buddha with Mucalinda Nāga, c. 1100 CE, Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia
15th century Sukhothai Buddha.
15th century Sukhothai Walking Buddha.
Sakyamuni, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, c. from 1368 until 1644.
Chinese depiction of Shakyamuni, 1600.
Shakyamuni Buddha with Avadana Legend Scenes, Tibetan, 19th century
Golden Thai Buddha statue, Bodh Gaya.
Gautama statue, Shanyuan Temple, Liaoning Province, China.
Burmese style Buddha, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon.
Large Gautama Buddha statue in Buddha Park of Ravangla.

Leading a life of begging, asceticism, and meditation, he attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.

This event was said to have occurred under a pipal tree—known as "the Bodhi tree"—in Bodh Gaya, Bihar.

Mahabodhi Temple

Mahabodhi Temple

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Mahabodhi Temple
Ashoka's Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, built c. 250 BCE. The inscription between the Chaitya arches reads: "Bhagavato Sakamunino/ bodho" i.e. "The building round the Bodhi tree of the Bhagavat(Holy) Sakamuni (Shakyamuni)". Also interesting to note is the word Bhagavat for Buddha, as Hindus consider him an incarnation of Vishnu who is also called Bhagavat. The elephant-crowned pillar of Ashoka (now lost) is visible. Bharhut frieze (c. 100 BCE).
Another relief of the early circular Mahabodhi Temple, Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
Bodhi Tree
Discovery of the Diamond throne, built by Ashoka c. 250 BCE.
Reconstitution of the Sunga period pillars at Bodh Gaya, from archaeology (left) and from artistic relief (right). They are dated to the 1st century BCE. Reconstitution done by Alexander Cunningham.
The stupa finial on top of the pyramidal structure.
A statue of Mucalinda protecting the Buddha in Mucalinda Lake, Mahabodhi Temple
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The temple as it appeared in 1899, shortly after its restoration in the 1880s
Bodhgaya. Buddha image in the main temple.
Bodh Gaya quadriga relief of the sun god Surya riding between pillars (detail of a railing post), 2nd–1st century BCE.
The temple undergoing repairs (from January, 2006).
Bodh Gaya Chedi Replica at Wat Yansangwararam, Chonburi Province, Thailand
Bodh Gaya Sunga pillar.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
1903 photograph.
Bodh Gaya original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Bodh Gaya original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Railing post.
Another railing post.
Bodhi tree.
Bodhi Tree.
Dharmacakra.
Medallion.
Adoration of the Bodhi tree.
Elephant.
Centaur.
Horse.
Winged lion.
Cow nourishing her calf.
Bull.
The Jetavana Garden at Sravasti.
Padakusalamanava Jataka.<ref>The Padakusalamanava Jataka, in which a horse-headed ogress falls in love with one of her preys, and the Bodhisattva (the future Buddha) is born of their union. In: Didactic Narration: Jataka Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 pp. 15ff</ref>
Padakusalamanava Jataka.
Woman with child and goat.
Devotee and grottoe.
Amorous scene (drawing).
Amorous scene.
Miraculous River crossing.
Miraculous river-crossing (drawing)
Devotee and apsara.
Visit of Indra to the Indrasala Cave.
Kalpa drum.
Lakshmi lustrated by elephants.
Music scene.
Palace scene, Sibi Jataka.
Ploughing scene.
Devotee.
Devotee.
Devotee.
Apsara.
Apsara (drawing).
Vegetal medallion.
Plaster copy and reconstruction of original Sunga railing.
Railing.
Post relief (plaster copy).
Adoration of the wheel of the Law (plaster copy).
Flower Design decorated with gold leaves.
Decorated railing.

The Mahabodhi Temple (literally: "Great Awakening Temple") or the Mahābodhi Mahāvihāra, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Bodh Gaya (in Gaya district) is about 96 km from Patna, Bihar state, India.

Gaya district

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Gaya district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the Indian state of Bihar.

image_caption = Great Buddha Statue in Bodh Gaya

Gaya Airport

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IndiGo Airbus A320 at Gaya Airport

Gaya Airport, also known as Bodhgaya Airport, is a restricted international airport serving Gaya, Bihar, India.

This airport is 12 kilometres south-west of Gaya and 5 kilometres away from the temple city of Bodh Gaya, from where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment.