On June 5, 1788, Patrick Henry spoke before Virginia's ratification convention in opposition to the Constitution.
An 18th-century engraving, based on a drawing by Samuel Wale, of the Bill of Rights being presented to William III and Mary II
George Washington's 1788 letter to the Marquis de Lafayette observed, "the Convention of Massachusetts adopted the Constitution in toto; but recommended a number of specific alterations and quieting explanations." Source: Library of Congress
James Madison, primary author and chief advocate for the Bill of Rights in the First Congress

The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the Northwest Ordinance (1787), the English Bill of Rights (1689), and Magna Carta (1215).

- United States Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights 1689 was one of the models for the United States Bill of Rights of 1789, the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.

- Bill of Rights 1689

4 related topics

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Magna Carta

Royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

Royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

King John on a stag hunt
A contemporaneous mural of Pope Innocent III
The Articles of the Barons, 1215, held by the British Library
The Charter of the Forest re-issued in 1225, held by the British Library
The 1225 version of Magna Carta issued by Henry III, held in the National Archives
1297 version of the Great Charter, on display in the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.
Magna carta cum statutis angliae ("Great Charter with English Statutes"), early 14th century
A version of the Charter of 1217, produced between 1437 and c. 1450
The jurist Edward Coke made extensive political use of Magna Carta.
The Leveller John Lilburne criticised Magna Carta as an inadequate definition of English liberties.
Magna Carta replica and display in the rotunda of the United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.
A romanticised 19th-century recreation of King John signing Magna Carta. Rather than signing in writing, the document would have been authenticated with the Great Seal and applied by officials rather than John himself.
The Magna Carta Memorial at Runnymede, designed by Sir Edward Maufe and erected by the American Bar Association in 1957. The memorial stands in the meadow known historically as Long Mede: it is likely that the actual site of the sealing of Magna Carta lay further east, towards Egham and Staines.
1733 engraving by John Pine of the 1215 charter (Cotton Charter XIII.31A)
1225 charter, held in the British Library, with the royal great seal attached
A 1297 copy of Magna Carta, owned by the Australian Government and on display in the Members' Hall of Parliament House, Canberra
A silver King John penny; much of Magna Carta concerned how royal revenues were raised.
King John holding a church, painted c. 1250–1259 by Matthew Paris

Reinforced with Lockean concepts, the Whigs believed England's constitution to be a social contract, based on documents such as Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights.

The document also continues to be honoured in the United States as an antecedent of the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Constitution of the United States

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
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"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.

The English Bill of Rights (1689) was an inspiration for the American Bill of Rights.

George Mason was the principal author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

Virginia Declaration of Rights

Drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.

Drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.

George Mason was the principal author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

It influenced a number of later documents, including the United States Declaration of Independence (1776) and the United States Bill of Rights (1789).

Mason based his initial draft on the rights of citizens described in earlier works such as the English Bill of Rights (1689) and the writings of John Locke.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Cruel and unusual punishment

Phrase in common law describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to the sanction.

Phrase in common law describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to the sanction.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

These exact words were first used in the English Bill of Rights 1689.

The Constitution of the Marshall Islands, in the sixth section of its Bill of Rights (Article 2), prohibits "cruel and unusual punishment", which it defines as: the death penalty; torture; "inhuman and degrading treatment"; and "excessive fines or deprivations".