Billiard ball

billiard ballscue ballballspool (pocket billiards) ballsnooker ballpool ballspool ballballpink ballbilliards, pool and snooker balls
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker.wikipedia
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Cue sports

billiardsbilliardpool
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker.
are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.

Pool (cue sports)

poolpoolspocket billiards
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker. Pool balls are used to play various pool (pocket billiards or pool billiards) games, such as eight-ball, nine-ball and one-pocket.
Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the, into which balls are deposited.

Snooker

snooker playerpiece of snooker equipmenta game
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker.
Using a cue stick and 21 coloured balls, players must strike the white ball (or "cue ball") to or the remaining balls in the correct sequence, accumulating points for each pot.

Five-pin billiards

five-pinsfive-pinWorld Five-pins Championship
In the realm of carom billiards (or carambole) games, three balls are used to play straight-rail, three-cushion, balkline, five-pins, and related games on pocketless billiards tables.
Like most other carom games, five-pins requires three standard carom billiard balls of equal diameter: a red, a for the first player or team, and another cue ball for the second player or team.

John Wesley Hyatt

Hyatt, John WesleyJohn and Isaiah Hyatt
Although not the first artificial substance to be used for the balls (e.g. Sorel cement, invented in 1867, was marketed as an artificial ivory), John Wesley Hyatt invented a composition material in 1869 called nitrocellulose for billiard balls (US patent 50359, the first American patent for billiard balls).
Among the most well-known of his inventions was that of a substitute for ivory to produce billiard balls.

Celluloid

ParkesineXylonitefilm
By 1870 it was commercially branded Celluloid, the first industrial plastic.
In the 1860s, an American, John Wesley Hyatt, acquired Parkes's patent and began experimenting with cellulose nitrate with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory.

Billiard table

pool tablepool tablessnooker table
In the realm of carom billiards (or carambole) games, three balls are used to play straight-rail, three-cushion, balkline, five-pins, and related games on pocketless billiards tables.
More specific terms are used for specific sports, such as snooker table and pool table, and different-sized billiard balls are used on these table types.

Four-ball billiards

four-ballAmerican four-ball billiardsYotsudama
The exception is four-ball which needs an extra object ball.
Four-ball billiards or four-ball carom (often abbreviated to simply four-ball, and sometimes spelled 4-ball or fourball) is a carom billiards game, played on a pocketless table with four billiard balls, usually two red and two white, one of the latter with a spot to distinguish it (in some sets, one of the white balls is yellow instead of spotted).

Ten-ball

10-BallU.S. Open Ten-ball Championshipten ball
In the games of seven-ball, nine-ball, ten-ball and related, only object balls 1 through 7, 9 and 10, respectively (plus the cue ball) are used.
Ten-ball is preferred over nine-ball by some professionals as a more challenging discipline than nine-ball, because it is slightly harder to any balls on the with the more crowded, the initial shooter cannot instantly win the game by pocketing the 10 on the break, all shots must be, and performing a string of on successive racks is statistically more difficult to achieve.

Ivory

elephant ivorymammoth ivoryivories
Although affordable ox-bone balls were in common use in Europe, elephant ivory was favored since at least 1627 until the early 20th century; the earliest known written reference to ivory billiard balls is in the 1588 inventory of the Duke of Norfolk.
It was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items.

Saluc

Saluc S.A.
Currently Saluc, under the brand names Aramith and Brunswick Centennial, manufactures phenolic resin balls.
Founded in 1923, they are best known for their Aramith brand billiard balls, and are the manufacturer under license of the Brunswick Centennial pool ball line.

Eight-ball

8-Balleight ballpool
Pool balls are used to play various pool (pocket billiards or pool billiards) games, such as eight-ball, nine-ball and one-pocket.
Eight-ball is played with cue sticks and sixteen balls: a, and fifteen s consisting of seven striped balls, seven solid-colored balls and the black 8 ball.

Blackball (pool)

blackballeightball poolpool
In WPA blackball and its predecessor WEPF or English eight-ball pool (not to be confused with the games of eight-ball or English billiards), fifteen object balls again are used, but fall into two unnumbered, the (or less commonly ) and, with a white cue ball, and black 8 ball.
The game is played with sixteen balls (a and fifteen usually unnumbered ) on a small (6 ft × 3 ft or 7 ft × 3 ft 6 in) pool table with six.

Cue stick

cuepool cuecues
For example, Saluc markets several practice ball systems, including the Jim Rempe Training Ball, a marked with rings and targets on the surface of the ball so that the practicing player can better judge the effects of very particular amounts of,, and other forms of cue ball control, and learn better control of cue.
It is used to strike a ball, usually the.

Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
Although not the first artificial substance to be used for the balls (e.g. Sorel cement, invented in 1867, was marketed as an artificial ivory), John Wesley Hyatt invented a composition material in 1869 called nitrocellulose for billiard balls (US patent 50359, the first American patent for billiard balls).
In 1869, with elephants having been poached to near extinction, the billiards industry offered a US$10,000 prize to whomever came up with the best replacement for ivory billiard balls.

Carom billiards

carombilliardsBilliard
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker. In the realm of carom billiards (or carambole) games, three balls are used to play straight-rail, three-cushion, balkline, five-pins, and related games on pocketless billiards tables.

Russian pyramid

Russian billiardspyramid
Russian pyramid uses a set of fifteen numbered but otherwise all-white balls, and a red or yellow cue ball that may be even larger than carom billiards balls at 68 mm (2 11 ⁄ 16 in) or 72 mm (2 4 ⁄ 5 in).

Phenol formaldehyde resin

phenolic resinphenolicphenol-formaldehyde resin
Currently Saluc, under the brand names Aramith and Brunswick Centennial, manufactures phenolic resin balls.
Billiard balls are made from phenolic resins or other plastics.

Kelly pool

Behind the eight ballKelly
The term derives from the game kelly pool.
Kelly pool (also known as pea pool, pill pool, keeley, the keilley game, and killy) is a pocket billiards game played on a standard pool table using fifteen numbered markers called peas or pills, and a standard set of sixteen pool balls.

Sorel cement

magnesite cementmagnesium oxychloridemagnesium oxychloride cement
Although not the first artificial substance to be used for the balls (e.g. Sorel cement, invented in 1867, was marketed as an artificial ivory), John Wesley Hyatt invented a composition material in 1869 called nitrocellulose for billiard balls (US patent 50359, the first American patent for billiard balls).
Due to its resemblance to marble, it is also used for artificial stones, artificial ivory (e.g. for billiard balls) and other similar purposes.

Seven-ball

In the games of seven-ball, nine-ball, ten-ball and related, only object balls 1 through 7, 9 and 10, respectively (plus the cue ball) are used.
A special 7-ball was designed for television matches by Charles Ursitti (billiards historian, referee and Willie Mosconi's one time manager) to address the problem that the color of the seven and three balls in a standard set of pool balls are nearly indistinguishable when viewed on a TV screen.

Scattering theory

scatteringTheoryanomalous and direct scattering
Idealized, frictionless billiard balls are a staple of mathematical theorems and physics models, and figure in dynamical billiards, scattering theory, Lissajous knots, billiard ball computing and reversible cellular automata, Polchinski's paradox, contact dynamics, collision detection, the illumination problem, atomic ultracooling, quantum mirages and elsewhere in these fields.
Scattering also includes the interaction of billiard balls on a table, the Rutherford scattering (or angle change) of alpha particles by gold nuclei, the Bragg scattering (or diffraction) of electrons and X-rays by a cluster of atoms, and the inelastic scattering of a fission fragment as it traverses a thin foil.

Three-cushion billiards

three-cushionthree cushion billiardsthree cushion
In the realm of carom billiards (or carambole) games, three balls are used to play straight-rail, three-cushion, balkline, five-pins, and related games on pocketless billiards tables.

Three-ball

3-ballmodern folk game of three-ball
In other games such as three-ball and straight pool neither type of marking is of any consequence.
The cue ball is placed anywhere behind the ("in the ") and a typical hard break (as in nine-ball or eight-ball) is performed.

Collision

collisionscollidecolliding
Because the collisions between billiard balls are nearly elastic, and the balls roll on a surface that produces low rolling friction, their behavior is often used to illustrate Newton's laws of motion.
Because the collisions between billiard balls are nearly elastic, and the balls roll on a surface that produces low rolling friction, their behavior is often used to illustrate Newton's laws of motion.