Binbashi

Binbaşı shoulder mark of modern-day Turkish Armed Forces

Major in the Turkish army, of which term originated in the Ottoman army.

- Binbashi
Binbaşı shoulder mark of modern-day Turkish Armed Forces

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Major

Military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

Military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Rav seren - air force (Israel)
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Croatia (Bojnik)

Binbaşı (Turkey)

Bust of László Almásy at the Hungarian Geographical Museum in Érd

László Almásy

Hungarian aristocrat, motorist, desert explorer, aviator, Scout-leader and sportsman who served as the basis for the protagonist in both Michael Ondaatje's novel The English Patient (1992) and the movie adaptation of the same name (1996).

Hungarian aristocrat, motorist, desert explorer, aviator, Scout-leader and sportsman who served as the basis for the protagonist in both Michael Ondaatje's novel The English Patient (1992) and the movie adaptation of the same name (1996).

Bust of László Almásy at the Hungarian Geographical Museum in Érd
László Almásy with Nándor Zichy at Mátyásföld Airport, Budapest 1931
Ladislaus Almásy memorial plaque at Bernstein Castle

At Jebel Uweinat Almásy visited the Sudan Defence Force camp commanded by Captain Francis Godfrey Bertram Arkwright, and together they made some new rock art discoveries at the south of Jebel Uweinat.

Orde Wingate, the Gideon Force commander, talking with Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

Gideon Force

Small British and African special force, a Corps d’Élite with the Sudan Defence Force, Ethiopian regular forces and Arbegnoch .

Small British and African special force, a Corps d’Élite with the Sudan Defence Force, Ethiopian regular forces and Arbegnoch .

Orde Wingate, the Gideon Force commander, talking with Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

Wingate arranged for Lij Belay Zeleke to block a route of retreat from Debre Marqos over the Blue Nile, assisted by Bimbashi Wilfred Thesiger and Captain Foley, with a platoon of the Ethiopian Battalion.

A Janissary agha.

List of English words of Turkic origin

List of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages.

List of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages.

A Janissary agha.
Pieces of baklava.
Dervishes wearing calpacks.
Registration of boys for the devshirmeh.
A konak in Safranbolu, Karabük.
Odalisque with a slave, 1842.
Sarma, a kind of dolma, is a classic of Turkish cuisine.
Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Polish uhlans.
Cacık, a Turkish cold soup yogurt variety.

Binbashi: from Turkish binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", bin "thousand" + bash "head". (Mil.) A major in the Turkish army.

Atatürk in 1930

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

Atatürk in 1930
The house where Atatürk was born in the Ottoman city of Salonika (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), now a museum
The reconstructed house of Atatürk's paternal grandparents, in the Ottoman village of Kocacık (Kodžadžik in present-day North Macedonia)
Atatürk on the day of graduation from the War Academy in 1905
Atatürk (front row, second from left) with the Ottoman Turkish observers at the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, 28 September 1910
Atatürk (left) with an Ottoman military officer and Bedouin forces in Derna, Tripolitania Vilayet, 1912
Cevat Pasha and Atatürk on the daily Tasvîr-i Efkâr dated 29 October 1915
Atatürk with Ottoman military officers during the Battle of Gallipoli, Çanakkale, 1915
Atatürk in 1918, the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group and an Honorary aide-de-camp of the Sultan
Atatürk (right) in Angora (Ankara) with İsmet Pasha (left)
Prominent nationalists at the Sivas Congress, left to right: Muzaffer (Kılıç), Rauf (Orbay), Bekir Sami (Kunduh), Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Ruşen Eşref (Ünaydın), Cemil Cahit (Toydemir), Cevat Abbas (Gürer)
Atatürk inspects the Turkish troops on 18 June 1922
A British cartoon of 1923 satirising Atatürk's rule in Turkey
Atatürk at the opening ceremony of the Samsun-Çarşamba railroad (1928)
Atatürk in 1923, with members of the Mevlevi Order, before its institutional expression became illegal and their dervish lodge was changed into the Mevlana Museum. The Mevlevi Order managed to transform itself into a non-political organization which still exists.
In 1924, during his speech in Bursa
Atatürk during the Republic Day celebrations on the second anniversary of the Turkish Republic, 29 October 1925.
Atatürk with his Panama hat just after the Kastamonu speech in 1925
Atatürk is greeted by marines in Büyükada (14 July 1927)
Atatürk at the 1927 opening of the State Art and Sculpture Museum
Atatürk at the library of the Çankaya Presidential Residence in Ankara, on 16 July 1929
Atatürk attending a class at the Law School of the Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences in 1930
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri on 20 September 1928
In 1930, leaving the parliament after the 7th-year celebration meeting.
Atatürk with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar and his daughter in Yalova, on 13 August 1930
In 1931, during the establishment ceremony of the Turkish History Institution. Atatürk is standing with Afet İnan (on his left) and Yusuf Akçura (first from the left).
Atatürk at the opening of the Türkkuşu flight school in Etimesgut on 3 May 1935
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Atatürk with King Amānullāh Khān of Afghanistan in Ankara, 1928. King Amānullāh attempted to emulate many of Atatürk's reforms in Afghanistan, but was overthrown.
Atatürk with King Faisal I of Iraq in Ankara, 1931
During a reception at the USSR Embassy in Ankara, on 7 November 1927
Exchanges on the concept of a Balkan Federation during the visit of Voroshilov, a vision of Atatürk's which was never achieved
Atatürk (center) hosting the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (at the left) in Ankara, October 1930
Atatürk (right) with Reza Shah Pahlavi (left) of Iran, during the Shah's visit to Turkey
Atatürk observes the Turkish troops during the military exercise on 28 May 1936
During the visit of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in 1931
Atatürk with Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas (second from right) at the Balkan Pact summit in Ankara, March 1938
Telegram sent by Atatürk after the local legislative assembly accepted his proposal for the Hatay State's flag
Atatürk and Celâl Bayar visiting the Sümerbank Nazilli Cotton Factory, which was established as a part of the cotton-related industry
Atatürk supported large-scale government subsidized industrial complexes, such as Sümerbank, increasingly after the Great Depression.
Atatürk and İsmet İnönü at Nazilli Cotton Factory (1937)
Kemal Atatürk and his wife Latife Uşakizâde during a trip to Bursa, 1924
A view from the state funeral of Atatürk, November 1938
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on October 29.
Associated Press news article about the admiration of women from different parts of the world for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the handsome leader of the Turkish Republic.
Atatürk memorial on Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City
Statue of Atatürk in Ankara

On 1 December 1912, Atatürk arrived at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and, during the First Balkan War, he took part in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace under Binbaşı Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov's 7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev's Bulgarian Fourth Army.

Crowd gathering in front of the main Sublime Porte (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî) building shortly after the coup inside.

1913 Ottoman coup d'état

Coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Mehmed Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî).

Coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Mehmed Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî).

Crowd gathering in front of the main Sublime Porte (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî) building shortly after the coup inside.
The Grand Vizier and leader of the three-month "Great Cabinet", Ahmed Muhtar Pasha.
Prior to World War I, Enver Pasha was hailed at home as the hero of the revolution.
The pro-Freedom and Accord and anti-CUP Grand Vizier Kâmil Pasha, who led the government until his forced resignation in the coup.
The front page of the Le Petit Journal magazine in February 1913 depicting the assassination of Minister of War Nazım Pasha during the coup.
Ömer Naci (1878–1916)
Enver Bey asking Kâmil Pasha to resign during the raid on the Sublime Porte.
Enver Bey (center) speaking to a correspondent for the French magazine L'Illustration and the British attaché in Constantinople (Istanbul) immediately after seizing power in the coup.
A court session of the Turkish courts-martial of 1919–20. CUP's leaders, Enver, Cemal, Talaat, and others, were ultimately sentenced to death under charges of wartime profiteering and mistreatment of Armenians.

On 23 January 1913, at 14:30, Lieutenant Colonel Enver Bey (later and better known as Enver Pasha), one of the top leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress, was notified by a CUP member named Sapancalı Hakkı that everything was prepared for the raid as he waited in the military supply-station inspectorate (menzil müfettişliği) building near the Nuruosmaniye Mosque.

First UK edition

Justine (Durrell novel)

First volume in Lawrence Durrell's literary tetralogy, The Alexandria Quartet.

First volume in Lawrence Durrell's literary tetralogy, The Alexandria Quartet.

First UK edition

Nevertheless, many colourful characters abound: the narrator's mistress, the tubercular Greek dancer Melissa; the French consular official Georges Pombal, with whom the narrator shares lodgings; the idealised-but-feared Doppelgänger novelist Pursewarden; the Greek broker Capodistria; and the cross-dressing bimbashi Scobie.

Pandurs crossing the Olt River at Slatina, on May 10, 1821; the four men standing at the front of the barge are, from the left: Dimitrie Macedonski, Tudor Vladimirescu, Mihai Cioranu, and Hadži-Prodan. Lithograph by Carol Isler

Wallachian uprising of 1821

Social and political rebellion in Wallachia, which was at the time a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire.

Social and political rebellion in Wallachia, which was at the time a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire.

Pandurs crossing the Olt River at Slatina, on May 10, 1821; the four men standing at the front of the barge are, from the left: Dimitrie Macedonski, Tudor Vladimirescu, Mihai Cioranu, and Hadži-Prodan. Lithograph by Carol Isler
Oltenian peasant cavalry, ca. 1805. From a church mural in Slătioara
Personification of Justice, illustration to Petru Maior's Istoria pentru începuturi a Românilor în Dachia, Buda, 1812
Tismana Monastery, the Pandurs' original base
Map of Vladimirescu and Ypsilantis' marches on Bucharest
Map of Bucharest and its wards ("colors") under Tudor Vladimirescu; showing quarters of Vladimirescu and Ypsilantis' respective armies, Orthodox monasteries, and Belvedere manor
Map of the Ottoman invasion of Wallachia and Pandur withdrawal to Oltenia
German print of 1821, depicting Fochianos and his Arnauts being massacred by Ottomans in Bucharest
Pandurs in Bucharest, with peasant women and wayside cross. Drawing by Michel Bouquet, 1841
Coat of arms of Gorj County during the communist period. Featuring attributed flag (with inscription) and sabre, both of which stood for Vladimirescu and his revolt

This interval also marked the return to Bucharest of Sava Fochianos, whom Callimachi had created a Binbashi of his own Arnaut garrison.

Frederick Williams-Taylor

Canadian banker.

Canadian banker.

Frederick Travers Williams-Taylor (1894–1926), a Lt. formerly of the 13th Hussars, Bimbashi Sudan Defence Force and veteran of World War I who died in 1926.

Flag of the Sudan Defence Force (1925-1956)

Sudan Defence Force

Locally recruited British-led force formed in 1925 to assist the police in the event of civil unrest, and to maintain the borders of British administered Sudan.

Locally recruited British-led force formed in 1925 to assist the police in the event of civil unrest, and to maintain the borders of British administered Sudan.

Flag of the Sudan Defence Force (1925-1956)
Undated photo of inspection of SDF honour guard by Chief of the Imperial General Staff

The result was that British officers in the Sudan were called Bimbashi not Major, or an Arabic equivalent, and Kaimakam.