Binomial nomenclature

scientific namebinomial namebinomial authorityspecific epithetbinomialbinomial systemscientific namesdescribedspecies namebinomen
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.wikipedia
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Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Carl von Linné
The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more commonly known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
Carl Linnaeus ( 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
All species (except viruses) are given a two-part name, a "binomial".

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
The first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus.
In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

ICZNzoological nomenclatureICZN Code
The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp).
In the species-group, publishing a species name (the binomen) Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 also establishes the subspecies name (the trinomen) Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758.

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
For example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens.
The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Linnaeus, 1758.

Gaspard Bauhin

Caspar BauhinGaspardBauhin
But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1622, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici (English, Illustrated exposition of plants) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus.
Gaspard Bauhin or Caspar Bauhin (Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose Phytopinax (1596) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus.

Species Plantarum

1753Linnaeus (1753)Sp. Pl.
The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753.
It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants.

Systema Naturae

1758Systema Naturæ1789
Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book.

Homo

early humansearly humanhumans
For example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens.
The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758).

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more commonly known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, and led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day.

Latinisation of names

LatinizedLatinisedlatinisation
The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more commonly known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
It is commonly found with historical proper names, including personal names and toponyms, and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences.

Synonym (taxonomy)

synonymjunior synonymsyn.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
Classification is the ordering of items into groups based on similarities or differences; in biological classification, species are one of the kinds of item to be classified.
The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.

Zoology

zoologistzoologicalzoologists
It includes ranks and binomial nomenclature.

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

International Code of Botanical NomenclatureICBNICN
The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp).

House sparrow

Passer domesticussparrowhouse sparrows
The house sparrow was among the first animals to be given a scientific name in the modern system of biological classification, since it was described by Carl Linnaeus, in the 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes

International Code of Nomenclature of BacteriaBacteriological Codebacteriological nomenclature
The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea.

Tautonym

tautonymytautonomytautonyms
A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example Rattus rattus.

Tarchia

Tarchia teresaeDyoplosaurus giganteusTarchia gigantea
This was generally accepted and Tarchia gigantea became the usual species name, as a combinatio nova replacing Tarchia kielanae.

Infraspecific name

infraspecific taxainfraspecific taxoninfraspecific
See trinomen (zoology) and infraspecific name.)
In botany, an infraspecific name is the scientific name for any taxon below the rank of species, i.e. an infraspecific taxon.

New Latin

Neo-LatinModern LatinLatin
New Latin is also the source of the biological system of binomial nomenclature and classification of living organisms devised by Carl Linnaeus, although the rules of the ICZN allow the construction of names that deviate considerably from historical norms.

Basionym

original combinationbasedbasonym
In the scientific name of organisms, basionym or basyonym means the original name on which a new name is based; the author citation of the new name should include the authors of the basionym in parentheses.