Biochemical cascade

cascadecascadescascadingEnzyme cascadesignaling cascadesignaling cascadesCascade effectorcascading chemical changechain reactionintracellular cascades
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.wikipedia
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Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

Ischemic cascade

hypoxic brain injury in strokeischemic neuronal injuryreperfusion
*Ischemic cascade
A cascade is a series of events in which one event triggers the next, in a linear fashion.

Cell adhesion

adhesioncellular adhesioncell-cell adhesion
Adhesion is an essential process to epithelial cells so that epithelium can be formed and cells can be in permanent contact with extracellular matrix and other cells.
Gap junction channels are selectively permeable to specific ions depending on which connexins form the connexons, which allows gap junctions to be involved in cell signalling by regulating the transfer of molecules involved in signalling cascades.

Protease

proteasespeptidaseproteinase
The pathways are a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its glycoprotein co-factors are activated to become active components that then catalyze the next reaction in the cascade, ultimately resulting in cross-linked fibrin.
By complex cooperative action the proteases may proceed as cascade reactions, which result in rapid and efficient amplification of an organism's response to a physiological signal.

Lck

lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck)lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase
Therefore, Lyn and Lck, in lymphocytes B and T, respectively, phosphorylate ITAMs after the antigen recognition and the conformational change of the receptor, which leads to the binding of Syk/Zap-70 kinases to ITAM and its activation.
The tyrosine phosphorylation cascade initiated by Lck and Fyn culminates in the intracellular mobilization of calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions and activation of important signaling cascades within the lymphocyte.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
This complex activates Iκκ kinase, which phosphorylates I-κB, and then allows the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus and transcription of genes encoding cytokines, for example.
Subsequent cascades of intracellular signaling then alter cell functions.

Leukemia inhibitory factor

LIFLeukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF)Leukaemia-Inhibitory factor
There are some signaling pathways, such as LIF/JAK/STAT3 (Leukemia inhibitory factor/Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and BMP/SMADs/Id (Bone morphogenetic proteins/ Mothers against decapentaplegic/ Inhibitor of differentiation), mediated by transcription factors, epigenetic regulators and others components, and they are responsible for self-renewal genes expression and inhibition of differentiation genes expression, respectively.
This leads to activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) cascades.

Excitotoxicity

excitotoxicexcitotoxinglutamate toxicity
Such oxidative and metabolic compromise may thereby render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis.
The biochemical cascade resulting from ischemia and involving excitotoxicity is called the ischemic cascade.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cAMPcyclic AMP3',5'-cyclic AMP
The erythrocyte is able to feel the tissue need for O 2 and cause a change in vascular caliber, through the pathway of ATP release, which requires an increase in cAMP, and are regulated by the phosphodiesterase (PDE).

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

cGMPcyclic GMP3',5'-cyclic GMP
It was recently suggested that cGMP cooperates with cAMP to maintain the cell cycle arrest.

Protein kinase A

PKAcAMP-dependent protein kinasecyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase
This pathway includes heterotrimeric G proteins, adenylyl cyclase (AC), protein kinase A (PKA), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and a final conduit that transport ATP to vascular lumen (pannexin 1 or voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)).

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning