Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistryphysiological chemistrybiochemicalsbiochemicallybiochemical reactionbiochemical reactionsbiochemistsBio-Chemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.wikipedia
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Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

Molecular genetics

molecular geneticmolecularmolecular geneticist
A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism.
The field of study is based on the merging of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.

List of life sciences

life scienceslife sciencebioscience
Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research.
Some focus on the micro scale (e.g. molecular biology, biochemistry) other on larger scales (e.g. cytology, immunology, ethology, pharmacy, ecology).

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Macromolecule

macromoleculesmacromolecularmacromolecular chemistry
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles).

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and organism structure and function.
Biology and its subfields of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism.
In biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions (where the product of one reaction is the reactant of the next reaction) form metabolic pathways.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins.
In biochemistry, amino acids having both the amine and the carboxylic acid groups attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom have particular importance.

Carl Neuberg

The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister.
Carl Alexander Neuberg (29 July 1877 – 30 May 1956) was an early pioneer in biochemistry, and he is often referred to as the "father of modern biochemistry".

Felix Hoppe-Seyler

Hoppe-SeylerErnst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-SeylerHoppe-Seyler, Ernst Felix Immanuel
In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.
Ernst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-Seyler (26 December 1825 – 10 August 1895), né Felix Hoppe, was a German physiologist and chemist, and the principal founder of the disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology.

Metabolic pathway

metabolic pathwayspathwaypathways
These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The same laws that govern non-living chemistry govern the chemical processes of life.

Organic chemistry

organicorganic chemistorganic chemical
Then, in 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (included in many biochemicals) and the halogens.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
These methods are useful in laboratory biochemistry and cell biology, though generally not for commercial applications.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, and its role in the transfer of information in the cell.
Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.
Evidence suggests that life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years, with the oldest physical traces of life dating back 3.7 billion years; however, some theories, such as the Late Heavy Bombardment theory, suggest that life on Earth may have started even earlier, as early as 4.1–4.4 billion years ago, and the chemistry leading to life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during an epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition, and agriculture.

Molecular dynamics

dynamicsMDmolecular dynamic
Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.
First used in theoretical physics, the MD method gained popularity in materials science soon afterwards, and since the 1970s is also common in biochemistry and biophysics.

Frederick Gowland Hopkins

Frederick HopkinsSir Frederick Gowland HopkinsGowland Hopkins
Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry.
Biochemistry was not, at that time, recognised as a separate branch of science.

Chemist

chemistsresearch chemistchemical
The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister.
Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, and thermochemistry.

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
Just six elements—carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus—make up almost 99% of the mass of living cells, including those in the human body (see composition of the human body for a complete list).
As electrolytes, calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: in signal transduction pathways where they act as a second messenger; in neurotransmitter release from neurons; in contraction of all muscle cell types; as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization.

Isotopic labeling

radiolabelledisotope labelingradiolabeled
Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.
An isotopic tracer, (also "isotopic marker" or "isotopic label"), is used in chemistry and biochemistry to help understand chemical reactions and interactions.

Branches of science

scientific disciplineFields of scienceField of science
However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on.
It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, and matter (especially carbon based); biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics; and analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure.