Biodiesel

bio-dieselB20green dieselbioheatdiesel produced from algal oilsvegetable oilInternational Biodiesel Dayoxygenated fuelB5 biodieselB10
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.wikipedia
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Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
The most common type of diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted.

National Biodiesel Board

NBB
The National Biodiesel Board (USA) also has a technical definition of "biodiesel" as a mono-alkyl ester.
The National Biodiesel Board (NBB) is an American commercial trade association representing the biodiesel industry as the unifying and coordinating body for research and development in the United States.

EN 14214

DIN EN 14214
The Volkswagen Group has released a statement indicating that several of its vehicles are compatible with B5 and B100 made from rape seed oil and compatible with the EN 14214 standard. Biodiesel has a number of standards for its quality including European standard EN 14214, ASTM International D6751, and others.
EN 14214 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the requirements and test methods for FAME - the most common type of biodiesel.

Mount Washington Cog Railway

Cog RailwayMt. Washington Cog Railwaycog rail
In 2007, the historic Mt. Washington Cog Railway added the first biodiesel locomotive to its all-steam locomotive fleet.
It uses a Marsh rack system and one or two steam locomotives and six biodiesel powered locomotives to carry tourists to the top of the mountain.

Canola oil

canolaCanola/Rapeseed oilcanola (rapeseed) oil
The train will be powered by biodiesel made in part from canola grown in agricultural regions through which the short line runs. Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
It is also used as a source of biodiesel.

Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation

In the UK, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation obliges suppliers to include 5% renewable fuel in all transport fuel sold in the UK by 2010.
In practice, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation will mostly be achieved by blending fossil fuels with bioethanol, biomethanol or biodiesel - derived from sources such as palm oil, oilseed rape, cereals, sugar cane, sugar beet, and reprocessed vegetable oil - or biomethane.

Rapeseed

rapeseed oiloilseed raperape
The Volkswagen Group has released a statement indicating that several of its vehicles are compatible with B5 and B100 made from rape seed oil and compatible with the EN 14214 standard. Virgin oil feedstock – rapeseed and soybean oils are most commonly used, soybean oil accounting for about half of U.S. production. It also can be obtained from Pongamia, field pennycress and jatropha and other crops such as mustard, jojoba, flax, sunflower, palm oil, coconut and hemp (see list of vegetable oils for biofuel for more information);
Today, rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feed, edible vegetable oils, and biodiesel; leading producers include the European Union, Canada, China, India, and Australia.

ASTM D6751

D6751ASTM International D6751
Biodiesel has a number of standards for its quality including European standard EN 14214, ASTM International D6751, and others.
ASTM D6751 (American Society for Testing and Materials ) details standards and specifications for biodiesels blended with middle distillate fuels.

Cloud point

cloud
The fuel starts to appear cloudy once the crystals become larger than one quarter of the wavelengths of visible light – this is the cloud point (CP).
In the petroleum industry, cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or biowax in biodiesels forms a cloudy appearance.

Biodiesel production

biodieselproduction of biodiesel
Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005.
Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions transesterification and esterification.

Vegetable oil

oilseedoilseedsoil
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel, which can be used like conventional diesel.

Algae fuel

algaealgal fuelbiofuel from algae
Algae, which can be grown using waste materials such as sewage and without displacing land currently used for food production.
The energy crisis and the world food crisis have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using land unsuitable for agriculture.

Fuel tax

gas taxgasoline taxfuel taxes
In 2007, in the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 were lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends were the same as petrodiesel.
Placing higher taxes on fossil fuels makes petrol just as expensive as other fuels such as natural gas, biodiesel or electric batteries, at a cost to the consumer in the form of inflation as transportation costs rise to transport goods all over the country.

United States biofuel policies

Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit
The Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) was the main source of financial support for biofuels, but was scheduled to expire in 2010.
United States policy in regard to biofuels, such as ethanol fuel and biodiesel, began in the early 1990s as the government began looking more intensely at biofuels as a way to reduce dependence on foreign oil and increase the nation's overall sustainability.

List of vegetable oils

List of vegetable oils used for biofuelseed oilsoil crop
Virgin oil feedstock – rapeseed and soybean oils are most commonly used, soybean oil accounting for about half of U.S. production. It also can be obtained from Pongamia, field pennycress and jatropha and other crops such as mustard, jojoba, flax, sunflower, palm oil, coconut and hemp (see list of vegetable oils for biofuel for more information);
Sunflower oil, a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel.

Vegetable oil fuel

straight vegetable oilwaste vegetable oilvegetable oil
Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
Straight vegetable oil can also be blended with conventional diesel or processed into biodiesel or bioliquids for use under a wider range of conditions.

Tallow

beef tallowgreavesbeef fat
Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil, animal fat (tallow )) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.
Tallow can be used for the production of biodiesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester – FAME) as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester – FAEE) biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used.
Argonne National Laboratory analyzed greenhouse gas emissions of many different engine and fuel combinations, and found that biodiesel/petrodiesel blend (B20) showed a reduction of 8%, conventional E85 ethanol blend a reduction of 17% and cellulosic ethanol 64%, compared with pure gasoline.

Corn oil

corncorn-oilcorn oils
Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
Corn oil is also a feedstock used for biodiesel.

Jatropha

Section SpeciesJatropha cuneataJatropha Curcas Linn
Virgin oil feedstock – rapeseed and soybean oils are most commonly used, soybean oil accounting for about half of U.S. production. It also can be obtained from Pongamia, field pennycress and jatropha and other crops such as mustard, jojoba, flax, sunflower, palm oil, coconut and hemp (see list of vegetable oils for biofuel for more information);
In the 2000s, one species, Jatropha curcas, generated interest as an oil crop for biodiesel production.

Argentina

🇦🇷ArgentineARG
Belgium, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Japan and China were reported to have tested and used vegetable oils as diesel fuels during this time.
the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.

Glycerol

glyceringlycerineconverted
A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol.
Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed.

Fatty acid methyl ester

fatty acid methyl estersMethyl esters of fatty acidsFAMEs
The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester – FAME) as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester – FAEE) biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used.
The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification.

Propylene glycol

1,2-propanediol1,2-propylene glycolpropane-1,2-diol
The following announcements were made in 2007: A joint venture of Ashland Inc. and Cargill announced plans to make propylene glycol in Europe from glycerol and Dow Chemical announced similar plans for North America.
Propylene glycol can also be converted from glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct.

Diesel engine

dieseldiesel enginesdiesels
Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by Patrick Duffy, four decades before the first diesel engine became functional.
Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, non-petroleum-based fuel (through transesterification) which can run directly in many diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation to run synthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol).