Biodiesel

bio-dieselB20bioheatgreen dieselB20 (biodiesel)Dieseldiesel produced from algal oilsInternational Biodiesel DayRapeseed Methyl Estervegetable oil
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.wikipedia
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Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
The most common type of diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted.

National Biodiesel Board

NBBNational Biodiesel Conference
The National Biodiesel Board (USA) defines "biodiesel" as a mono-alkyl ester.
The National Biodiesel Board (NBB) is an American commercial trade association representing the biodiesel industry as the unifying and coordinating body for research and development in the United States.

EN 14214

DIN EN 14214
The Volkswagen Group has released a statement indicating that several of its vehicles are compatible with B5 and B100 made from rape seed oil and compatible with the EN 14214 standard. Biodiesel has a number of standards for its quality including European standard EN 14214, ASTM International D6751, and others.
EN 14214 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the requirements and test methods for FAME - the most common type of biodiesel.

Mount Washington Cog Railway

Cog Railwaycog railMount Washington Railway
In 2007, the historic Mt. Washington Cog Railway added the first biodiesel locomotive to its all-steam locomotive fleet.
It uses a Marsh rack system and both steam and biodiesel-powered locomotives to carry tourists to the top of the mountain.

Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation

In the UK, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation obliges suppliers to include 5% renewable fuel in all transport fuel sold in the UK by 2010.
In practice, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation will mostly be achieved by blending fossil fuels with bioethanol, biomethanol or biodiesel - derived from sources such as palm oil, oilseed rape, cereals, sugar cane, sugar beet, and reprocessed vegetable oil - or biomethane.

Canola oil

canolacanola (rapeseed)canola (rapeseed) oil
The train will be powered by biodiesel made in part from canola grown in agricultural regions through which the short line runs. Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
It is also used as a source of biodiesel.

Vegetable oil

oilseedoilseedsoil
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel, which can be used like conventional diesel.

Tallow

beef tallowbeef fattallow cups
Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil, animal fat (tallow )) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters. Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
Tallow can be used for the production of biodiesel in much the same way as oils from plants are currently used.

Rapeseed

rapeseed oilBrassica napusoilseed rape
The Volkswagen Group has released a statement indicating that several of its vehicles are compatible with B5 and B100 made from rape seed oil and compatible with the EN 14214 standard.
Rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feed, edible vegetable oils, and biodiesel.

Fatty acid ester

esterified fatty acidsfatty acid ethyl esterfatty acid ethyl esters
Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean oil, animal fat (tallow )) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.
Biodiesels are typically fatty acid esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable fats and oils which results in the replacement of the glycerol component with a different alcohol.

Heating oil

oilhome heating oiloil heat
Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil.
In the United States, biodiesel blends of B5 (5% biodiesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel) are available in most markets as a lower CO2 and cleaner burning heating fuel.

ASTM D6751

D6751ASTM International D6751
Biodiesel has a number of standards for its quality including European standard EN 14214, ASTM International D6751, and others.
ASTM D6751 (American Society for Testing and Materials) details standards and specifications for biodiesels blended with middle distillate fuels.

Cloud point

cloud
The fuel starts to appear cloudy once the crystals become larger than one quarter of the wavelengths of visible light – this is the cloud point (CP).
In the petroleum industry, cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or biowax in biodiesels forms a cloudy appearance.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
Belgium, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Japan and China were reported to have tested and used vegetable oils as diesel fuels during this time.
the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.

Biodiesel production

biodieselBiodiesel recipeproduction of biodiesel
Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005.
Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions of transesterification and esterification.

Peanut oil

groundnut oilpeanutArachide oil
Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany, on 10 August 1893 running on nothing but peanut oil.
At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, at the request of the French Government, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.

Transesterification

methanolysistransesterifiedtrans-esterification
Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by Patrick Duffy, four decades before the first diesel engine became functional.
It is also used to convert fats (triglycerides) into biodiesel.

Diesel engine

dieseldiesel enginesdiesels
Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by Patrick Duffy, four decades before the first diesel engine became functional.

Corn oil

corncorn oilscorn-oil
Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.
Corn oil is also a feedstock used for biodiesel.

Fuel tax

gas taxgasoline taxfuel taxes
In 2007, in the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 were lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends were the same as petrodiesel.
Placing higher taxes on fossil fuels makes petrol just as expensive as other fuels such as natural gas, biodiesel or electric batteries, at a cost to the consumer in the form of inflation as transportation costs rise to transport goods all over the country.

Algae fuel

Algal fuelalgaebiofuel from algae
The energy crisis and the world food crisis have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using land unsuitable for agriculture.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester – FAME) as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester – FAEE) biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used.
Argonne National Laboratory analyzed greenhouse gas emissions of many different engine and fuel combinations, and found that biodiesel/petrodiesel blend (B20) showed a reduction of 8%, conventional E85 ethanol blend a reduction of 17% and cellulosic ethanol 64%, compared with pure gasoline.

Propylene glycol

1,2-propanediol1,2-propylene glycolMonopropylene Glycol
The following announcements were made in 2007: A joint venture of Ashland Inc. and Cargill announced plans to make propylene glycol in Europe from glycerol and Dow Chemical announced similar plans for North America.
Propylene glycol can also be obtained from glycerol, a byproduct from the production of biodiesel.

Fatty acid methyl ester

fatty acid methyl estersFAMEFAME analysis
The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Methyl Ester – FAME) as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester – FAEE) biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used.
The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification.

Glycerol

glyceringlycerineE422
A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol.
Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed.