diversitybiological diversitybiodiversediversebio-diversitybiologically diversediversity of lifediversificationspecies diversitybiological
Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth.wikipedia
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specificspecific epithetspecific name
Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity.

Biodiversity hotspot

biodiversity hotspotshotspotbiodiversity hot spot
Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that have experienced great habitat loss.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.

Latitudinal gradients in species diversity

latitudinal diversity gradientlatitudinal diversity gradientslatitudinal gradient in species
There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity.
Species richness, or biodiversity, increases from the poles to the tropics for a wide variety of terrestrial and marine organisms, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG).


Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics.
In the history of life on Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events.

Genetic variability

variabilityvariationgenetic variation
Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Genetic variability in a population is important for biodiversity.

Human impact on the environment

anthropogenichuman activityhuman impacts
Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification ), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crisis, and ecological collapse.

E. O. Wilson

Edward O. WilsonE.O. WilsonEdward Osborne Wilson
Edward O. Wilson prefers the acronym HIPPO, standing for Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, human over-Population and Over-harvesting.
Wilson has been called "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity" for his environmental advocacy, and his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters.

Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

full reportglobal biodiversity assessmentThe Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
and 2021-2030 as the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration According to a 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, 25% of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction as the result of human activity.
The Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is a report by the United Nations' Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, on the global state of biodiversity.

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDBiodiversityUnited Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
This definition is used in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.
The Convention has three main goals including: the conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

Ecosystem diversity

ecological diversitydiverseecological
Ecosystem diversity is a type of biodiversity.

Biotic material

bioticbiotic lifebiological materials
More recently, in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
Earth's biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions.

Biodiversity loss

loss of biodiversitybiodiversityloss
The next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events.
Even though permanent global species loss is a more dramatic phenomenon than regional changes in species composition, even minor changes from a healthy stable state can have dramatic influence on the food web and the food chain insofar as reductions in only one species can adversely affect the entire chain (coextinction), leading to an overall reduction in biodiversity, possible alternative stable states of an ecosystem notwithstanding.

Thomas Lovejoy

Thomas E. LovejoyDr. Thomas E. LovejoyThomas Eugene Lovejoy
Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in 1980.


Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. The study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species and ecosystems, is the science of biogeography.
Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning, as do the processes of disturbance and succession.


ecoregionsterrestrialterrestrial ecoregion
The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit defined "biological diversity" as "the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems".
The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions.

Habitat destruction

habitat losshabitat degradationloss of habitat
A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that have experienced great habitat loss.
In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed reducing biodiversity.

Genetic diversity

variationgenetically diversegenetic variation
The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity.
A study conducted by the National Science Foundation in 2007 found that genetic diversity (within species diversity) and biodiversity are dependent upon each other — i.e. that diversity within a species is necessary to maintain diversity among species, and vice versa.

Norman Myers

Dr. Norman Myers
The term hotspot was introduced in 1988 by Norman Myers.
Norman Myers (born 24 August 1934 – 20 October 2019) was a British environmentalist specialising in biodiversity and also noted for his work on environmental refugees.

United Nations Decade on Biodiversity

Aichi Biodiversity Targets
The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.
The UN Decade on Biodiversity serves to support and promote implementation of the objectives of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, with the goal of significantly reducing biodiversity loss.


The study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species and ecosystems, is the science of biogeography.
Beginning in the mid-18th century, Europeans explored the world and discovered the biodiversity of life.


evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution.
It is this process of evolution that has given rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms and molecules.

Atlantic Forest

Atlantic Forest biomeAtlantic rainforestMata Atlântica
Brazil's Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20,000 plant species, 1,350 vertebrates and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else.
The Atlantic Forest is characterized by a high biodiversity and endemism.

Permian–Triassic extinction event

Permian-Triassic extinction eventPermian extinctionPermian-Triassic boundary
The Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst; vertebrate recovery took 30 million years.
Because so much biodiversity was lost, the recovery of land-dwelling life took significantly longer than after any other extinction event, possibly up to 10 million years.


peat bogbogspeat bogs
Many regions of high biodiversity and/or endemism arise from specialized habitats which require unusual adaptations, for example, alpine environments in high mountains, or Northern European peat bogs.
Bogs have distinctive assemblages of animal, fungal and plant species, and are of high importance for biodiversity, particularly in landscapes that are otherwise settled and farmed.

Yasuni National Park

Yasuní National ParkYasuniYasuní
Rain forests that have had wet climates for a long time, such as Yasuní National Park in Ecuador, have particularly high biodiversity.
Yasuni National Park (YNP) is arguably the most biologically diverse spot on Earth and a convergence point for three unique regions, the Equator, Andes Mountains, and the Amazon rainforest.