Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologistbiological sciencebiosciencesbiologistsbiological researchbiologicallylife sciencesApplied Biology
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.wikipedia
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Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that embodies the properties of life.

Anatomy

anatomistanatomicalanatomically
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.
A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Then, in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that (1) the basic unit of organisms is the cell and (2) that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that (3) all cells come from the division of other cells.
Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

Extinction

extinctspecies extinction
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.
In biology, extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity.

Homeostasis

homeostaticequilibriumimmunomodulation
Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.
In biology, homeostasis is the state of steady internal physical and chemical conditions maintained by living systems.

Mathematical and theoretical biology

mathematical biologytheoretical biologybiomathematics
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritance
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.
The study of heredity in biology is genetics.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.
Their discoveries have influenced not just the development of biology but numerous other scientific and industrial fields, including agriculture, medicine and computer science.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
While the formal study of medicine dates back to Pharaonic Egypt, it was Aristotle (384–322 BC) who contributed most extensively to the development of biology.
His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government.

Experimental biology

biologyexperimental biologists
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
Experimental biology is the set of approaches in the field of biology concerned with the conduction of experiments to investigate and understand biological phenomena.

Theophrastus

TheophrastosOn Stonescharacter study
Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages.
The interests of Theophrastus were wide ranging, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics.

Cell theory

steady-state membrane pump
Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

Theodor Schwann

SchwannTheodore SchwannTheodor Ambrose Hubert Schwann
Then, in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that (1) the basic unit of organisms is the cell and (2) that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that (3) all cells come from the division of other cells.
His most significant contribution to biology is considered to be the extension of cell theory to animals.

Dissection

dissecteddissectingdissect
Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining.
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.

Microscopy

light microscopymicroscopistmicroscopic
Advances in microscopy also had a profound impact on biological thinking.
The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. These include the comparisons of DNA sequences, a product of molecular biology (more particularly genomics), and comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms, a product of paleontology.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

History of evolutionary thought

evolutionary theoryevolutionevolutionary thought
Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin.
Debate over Darwin's work led to the rapid acceptance of the general concept of evolution, but the specific mechanism he proposed, natural selection, was not widely accepted until it was revived by developments in biology that occurred during the 1920s through the 1940s.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
However, it was the British naturalist Charles Darwin, combining the biogeographical approach of Humboldt, the uniformitarian geology of Lyell, Malthus's writings on population growth, and his own morphological expertise and extensive natural observations, who forged a more successful evolutionary theory based on natural selection; similar reasoning and evidence led Alfred Russel Wallace to independently reach the same conclusions.
Natural selection is a cornerstone of modern biology.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
While the formal study of medicine dates back to Pharaonic Egypt, it was Aristotle (384–322 BC) who contributed most extensively to the development of biology.

Abiogenesis

origin of lifeorigins of lifeformation
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today.

Genomics

genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
These include the comparisons of DNA sequences, a product of molecular biology (more particularly genomics), and comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms, a product of paleontology.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of biology focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

Phylogenetics

phylogeneticphylogenetic analysisphylogenetically
Biologists organize and analyze evolutionary relationships through various methods, including phylogenetics, phenetics, and cladistics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός – genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species, or populations).