Bioluminescence

bioluminescentlight-producingluminescentbio-luminescencebioluminesceluminouslight-emittingBioluminescent Baybioluminescent organismslight
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.wikipedia
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Bioluminescent bacteria

Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. Bioluminescence occurs widely among animals, especially in the open sea, including fish, jellyfish, comb jellies, crustaceans, and cephalopod molluscs; in some fungi and bacteria; and in various terrestrial invertebrates including insects.
Bioluminescent bacteria are light-producing bacteria that are predominantly present in sea water, marine sediments, the surface of decomposing fish and in the gut of marine animals.

Light

visible lightvisiblelight source
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Some species of animals generate their own light, a process called bioluminescence.

Firefly

Lampyridaefireflieslightning bug
Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. Non-marine bioluminescence is less widely distributed, the two best-known cases being in fireflies and glow worms.
They are soft-bodied beetles that are commonly called fireflies or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminescence during twilight to attract mates or prey.

Luciferase

firefly luciferasefireflieslight-emitting
In a general sense, the principal chemical reaction in bioluminescence involves some light-emitting molecule and an enzyme, generally called the luciferin and the luciferase, respectively.
Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

Luciferin

oxyluciferinluciferins
In a general sense, the principal chemical reaction in bioluminescence involves some light-emitting molecule and an enzyme, generally called the luciferin and the luciferase, respectively.
Luciferin (from the Latin lucifer, "light-bringer") is a generic term for the light-emitting compound found in organisms that generate bioluminescence.

Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophic
Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies.

E. Newton Harvey

Edmund Newton Harvey
In 1920, the American zoologist E. Newton Harvey published a monograph, The Nature of Animal Light, summarizing early work on bioluminescence.
He was acknowledged as one of the leading authorities on bioluminescence.

Noctiluca scintillans

NoctilucaNoctiluca milaris
Harvey notes that in 1753, J. Baker identified the flagellate Noctiluca "as a luminous animal" "just visible to the naked eye", and in 1854 Johann Florian Heller (1813–1871) identified strands (hyphae) of fungi as the source of light in dead wood.
Noctiluca scintillans, commonly known as the sea sparkle, and also published as Noctiluca miliaris, is a free-living, marine-dwelling species of dinoflagellate that exhibits bioluminescence when disturbed (popularly known as mareel).

Dinoflagellate

dinoflagellatesDinoflagellataPyrrhophyta
The phenomenon is widely distributed among animal groups, especially in marine environments where dinoflagellates cause phosphorescence in the surface layers of water.
Some dinoflagellates also exhibit bioluminescence—primarily emitting blue-green light.

Pyrophorus (beetle)

Pyrophorusclick beetles
He studied click beetles (Pyrophorus) and the marine bivalve mollusc Pholas dactylus.
They are one of several genera in the tribe Pyrophorini, all of which are bioluminescent.

Vargula hilgendorfii

Cypridina hilgendorfiisea firefly
He used the sea firefly Vargula hilgendorfii, but it was another ten years before he discovered the chemical's structure and was able to publish his 1957 paper Crystalline Cypridina Luciferin.
Vargula hilgendorfii, sometimes called the sea-firefly and one of three bioluminescent species known in Japan as umi-hotaru, is a species of ostracod crustacean.

Chemiluminescence

chemiluminescentchemoluminescencechemoluminescent
It is a form of chemiluminescence.
When chemiluminescence takes place in living organisms, the phenomenon is called bioluminescence.

Pholas dactylus

shell
He studied click beetles (Pyrophorus) and the marine bivalve mollusc Pholas dactylus.
Pholas dactylus, or common piddock, is a bioluminescent clam-like species of marine mollusc found on the coasts of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.

Aequorea victoria

Crystal Jellya jellyfishA. victoria
Instead of a luciferase, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria makes use of another type of protein called a photoprotein, in this case specifically aequorin.
Aequorea victoria, also sometimes called the crystal jelly, is a bioluminescent hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusa, that is found off the west coast of North America.

Firefly luciferase

beetle luciferasesluciferases of fireflies
Other cofactors may be required for the reaction, such as calcium (Ca 2+ ) for the photoprotein aequorin, or magnesium (Mg 2+ ) ions and ATP for the firefly luciferase.
Firefly luciferase is the light-emitting enzyme responsible for the bioluminescence of fireflies and click beetles.

Aequorin

apoaequorinPrevagenaqueorin
Instead of a luciferase, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria makes use of another type of protein called a photoprotein, in this case specifically aequorin. Other cofactors may be required for the reaction, such as calcium (Ca 2+ ) for the photoprotein aequorin, or magnesium (Mg 2+ ) ions and ATP for the firefly luciferase.
Though the bioluminescence was studied decades before, the protein was originally isolated from the animal by Osamu Shimomura.

Safety lamp

safety lampsClannyClanny lamps
Before the development of the safety lamp for use in coal mines, dried fish skins were used in Britain and Europe as a weak source of light.
From them a faint bioluminescence (often called phosphorescence) occurs.

Jellyfish

medusamedusaejelly fish
In evolution, luciferins tend to vary little: one in particular, coelenterazine, is the light emitting pigment for nine phyla (groups of very different organisms), including polycystine radiolaria, Cercozoa (Phaeodaria), protozoa, comb jellies, cnidaria including jellyfish and corals, crustaceans, molluscs, arrow worms and vertebrates (ray-finned fish). Bioluminescence occurs widely among animals, especially in the open sea, including fish, jellyfish, comb jellies, crustaceans, and cephalopod molluscs; in some fungi and bacteria; and in various terrestrial invertebrates including insects.
They are also used in research, where the green fluorescent protein, used by some species to cause bioluminescence, has been adapted as a fluorescent marker for genes inserted into other cells or organisms.

Photoprotein

photoproteins
Instead of a luciferase, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria makes use of another type of protein called a photoprotein, in this case specifically aequorin. Other cofactors may be required for the reaction, such as calcium (Ca 2+ ) for the photoprotein aequorin, or magnesium (Mg 2+ ) ions and ATP for the firefly luciferase.
Photoproteins are a type of enzyme, made of protein, from bioluminescent organisms.

Phengodidae

glowworm beetleTelegeusidaeglow worms
Non-marine bioluminescence is less widely distributed, the two best-known cases being in fireflies and glow worms.
The females and larvae have bioluminescent organs.

List of bioluminescent fungus species

List of bioluminescent fungibioluminescentBioluminescent fungi
Bioluminescence occurs widely among animals, especially in the open sea, including fish, jellyfish, comb jellies, crustaceans, and cephalopod molluscs; in some fungi and bacteria; and in various terrestrial invertebrates including insects.
No correlation of fungal bioluminescence with cell structure has been found.

Camouflage

cryptic colorationcamouflagedcamouflaging
In many animals of the deep sea, including several squid species, bacterial bioluminescence is used for camouflage by counterillumination, in which the animal matches the overhead environmental light as seen from below.
In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid.

Insect

Insectainsectsbugs
On land it occurs in fungi, bacteria and some groups of invertebrates, including insects.
A few insects, such as members of the families Poduridae and Onychiuridae (Collembola), Mycetophilidae (Diptera) and the beetle families Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae are bioluminescent.

Chaetognatha

chaetognathsSagittoideaarrow worm
In evolution, luciferins tend to vary little: one in particular, coelenterazine, is the light emitting pigment for nine phyla (groups of very different organisms), including polycystine radiolaria, Cercozoa (Phaeodaria), protozoa, comb jellies, cnidaria including jellyfish and corals, crustaceans, molluscs, arrow worms and vertebrates (ray-finned fish).
Two chaetognath species, Caecosagitta macrocephala and Eukrohnia fowleri, have bioluminescent organs on their fins.

Squid

TeuthidasquidsDecapodiformes
In many animals of the deep sea, including several squid species, bacterial bioluminescence is used for camouflage by counterillumination, in which the animal matches the overhead environmental light as seen from below.
Some species are bioluminescent, using their light for counter-illumination camouflage, while many species can eject a cloud of ink to distract predators.