Biome

biotabiomesmajor habitat typebiotasbioticdesert plantmarine biomeorganismsWalter system4 Marine world biomes
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.wikipedia
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Fauna

epifaunalinfaunaepifauna
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota.

Human microbiome

human microbiotamicrobiomehuman flora
For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on or in a human body.
Though widely known as flora or microflora, this is a misnomer in technical terms, since the word root flora pertains to plants, and biota refers to the total collection of organisms in a particular ecosystem.

Phytochorion

floristic provincefloristic regionfloristic kingdom
In Brazilian literature, the term "biome" is sometimes used as synonym of "biogeographic province", an area based on species composition (the term "floristic province" being used when plant species are considered), or also as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, and of a certain vegetation form.
Phytochoria are defined by their plant taxonomic composition, while other schemes of regionalization (e.g., vegetation type, physiognomy, plant formations, biomes) may variably take in account, depending on the author, the apparent characteristics of a community (the dominant life-form), environment characteristics, the fauna associated, anthropic factors or political-conservationist issues.

Tundra

tundra climateArctic tundraET
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

Taiga

boreal forestborealboreal forests
Taiga (relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and larches.

Climate

climaticclimatesaverage annual temperature
Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.
Examples of empiric classifications include climate zones defined by plant hardiness, evapotranspiration, or more generally the Köppen climate classification which was originally designed to identify the climates associated with certain biomes.

Biosphere

ecospherebiosphericenvironment
The biotas of the Earth make up the biosphere.
Geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists).

Habitat

habitatsmicrohabitatnatural habitat
Biome is a broader term than habitat; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats.
Within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils, altitudes and vegetation types.

Chaparral

desert chaparralchaparral plant communityfire follower
It is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire, featuring summer-drought-tolerant plants with hard sclerophyllous evergreen leaves, as contrasted with the associated soft-leaved, drought-deciduous, scrub community of coastal sage scrub, found below the chaparral biome.

Vegetation

vegetativevegetatedvegetative cover
Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy, formation and vegetation (used in opposition to flora), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition. Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat.
Later, the concept of vegetation would influence the usage of the term biome, with the inclusion of the animal element.

Grassland

grasslandsgrassveldgrass
For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome (ecosystem), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones.

Savanna

savannahsavannassavannahs
Savannas are also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomes, and are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland.

Biotope

biotopeshabitatbiotope aquarium
In German literature, particularly in the Walter terminology, the term is used similarly as biotope (a concrete geographical unit), while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology - irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name - and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome" (biomes determined by climate zone, altitude or soil).
Haeckel also explains that with one ecosystem, its biota is shaped by environmental factors (such as water, soil, and geographical features) and interaction among living things; the original idea of a biotope was closely related to evolutional theory.

Tropical rainforest

tropical rain foresttropical rainforeststropical rain forests
True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator (see map); they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28-degree latitudes (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn).

Seasonal tropical forest

monsoon foresttropical seasonal forestmonsoon forests
This tropical forest is classified under the Walter system as (ii) tropical climate with high overall rainfall (typically in the 1000–2500 mm range; 39–98 inches) concentrated in the summer wet season and cooler “winter” dry season: representing a range of habitats influenced by monsoon (Am) or tropical wet savannah (Aw) climates (as in the Köppen climate classification).

International Biological Program

International Biological Programme
The International Biological Program (1964–74) projects popularized the concept of biome.
The main results of the IBP were five biome studies, the largest of which were the Grassland Biome project and the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome project (both of which had ties to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which provided tracer isotopes for nutrient- and energy-flow experiments).

Rain

rainfallrainwaterrainstorm
Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat.
A tropical savanna is a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes, with rainfall between 750 and 1270 mm a year.

Robert Whittaker

WhittakerRobert H. WhittakerR. H. Whittaker
Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature.
He also proposed the Whittaker Biome Classification, which categorized biome-types upon two abiotic factors : temperature and precipitation.

Global 200

Global 200 Ecoregionsglobal ecoregion200 ecoregions
This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation.
Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action.

Biogeographic realm

ecozoneecozonesbiogeographic realms
A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.).
They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classified based on their biomes or habitat types.

Natural environment

environmentenvironmentalpaleoenvironment
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Biomes are terminologically similar to the concept of ecosystems, and are climatically and geographically defined areas of ecologically similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems.

Flora

plant speciesplantsfloras
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy, formation and vegetation (used in opposition to flora), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.

Ecoregion

ecoregionsterrestrialterrestrial ecoregion
This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation. A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.).
Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats that differ from their assigned biome.

Biogeography

biogeographicbiogeographicalbiogeographically
Islands are very diverse in their biomes, ranging from the tropical to arctic climates.

Humid continental climate

Dfbhumid continentalHumid continental climate, warm summer
Biomes within this climate regime include temperate woodlands, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous, temperate evergreen forests, and coniferous forests.