A report on Biome

One way of mapping terrestrial biomes around the world
Holdridge life zone classification scheme. Although conceived as three-dimensional by its originator, it is usually shown as a two-dimensional array of hexagons in a triangular frame.
The distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual temperature and precipitation.
Terrestrial biomes of the world according to Olson et al. and used by the WWF and Global 200.

Distinct biogeographical unit consisting of a biological community that has formed in response to a shared regional climate.

- Biome
One way of mapping terrestrial biomes around the world

40 related topics with Alpha

Overall

284x284px

Grassland

6 links

Dominated by grasses .

Dominated by grasses .

284x284px
Setaria pumila, a species of Poaceae (the dominant plant family in grasslands)
Coxilhas (hills covered by grasslands) in the Pampas, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.
Quercus robur -also known as the English oak- dominating the semi-natural grasslands
Black rhino
mountain plover
cheetah
Main land-cover trajectories from the 1960s to 2015
Meadow by the Desna river in Ukraine
Cumberland Plain Woodland, a grassy woodland that covers Western Sydney
Grassland in the Antelope Valley, California
Setaria pumila, a species of Poaceae (the dominant plant family in grasslands)

Furthermore, grasslands are one of the largest biomes on earth and dominate the landscape worldwide.

A map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions. The yellow line encloses the ecoregions per the World Wide Fund for Nature.

Ecoregion

6 links

Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a biogeographic realm.

Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a biogeographic realm.

A map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions. The yellow line encloses the ecoregions per the World Wide Fund for Nature.
A map of the bioregions of Canada & the USA.
The Ötztal Alps, a mountain range in the central Alps of Europe, are part of the Central Eastern Alps, and can both be termed as ecoregions.
A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park).
Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (Olson et al. 2001, BioScience)
WWF terrestrial ecoregions
Proportion of forest area by forest area density class and global ecological zone, 2015, from Food and Agriculture Organization publication The State of the World's Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief
View of Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 crew. Approximately 71% of Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) consists of ocean
The Amazon River in Brazil.

Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats that differ from their assigned biome.

This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area provides habitat for numerous marine species.

Habitat

5 links

Area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species.

Area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species.

This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area provides habitat for numerous marine species.
Few creatures make the ice shelves of Antarctica their habitat, but water beneath the ice can provide habitat for multiple species.
Ibex in an alpine habitat
Rich rainforest habitat in Dominica
Wetland habitat types in Borneo
Desert scene in Egypt
An Antarctic rock split apart to show endolithic lifeforms showing as a green layer a few millimeters thick
Dense mass of white crabs at a hydrothermal vent, with stalked barnacles on right
Twenty five years after the devastating eruption at Mount St. Helens, United States, pioneer species have moved in.

Within these broad biomes are more specific habitat types with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils, altitudes and vegetation.

Rainforest ecosystems are rich in biodiversity. This is the Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.

Ecosystem

4 links

An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact.

An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact.

Rainforest ecosystems are rich in biodiversity. This is the Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.
Flora of Baja California Desert, Cataviña region, Mexico
Global oceanic and terrestrial phototroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary production potential and not an actual estimate of it.
Sequence of a decomposing pig carcass over time
Biological nitrogen cycling
Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained stable over a long period until a number of introductions in the 1970s restructured its food web.
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation
A hydrothermal vent is an ecosystem on the ocean floor. (The scale bar is 1 m.)
The High Peaks Wilderness Area in the 6000000 acre Adirondack Park is an example of a diverse ecosystem.
The Forest Landscape Integrity Index measures global anthropogenic modification on remaining forests annually. 0 = Most modification; 10= Least.

Biomes are general classes or categories of ecosystems.

Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas

Savanna

4 links

Mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

Mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas
Tarangire National Park in Tanzania, East Africa
Prescribed burn; Wisconsin bur oak savanna
Grevy's zebras grazing
Iberian pigs feeding on acorns of an holm oak
Savanna in eastern South Africa
Savanna in Western Sydney
Acacia savanna, Taita Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Kenya.
Mediterranean savanna in the Alentejo region, Portugal
Oak savanna, United States

Savannas are also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomes, and are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland.

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park)

Forest

4 links

Area of land dominated by trees.

Area of land dominated by trees.

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park)
The Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York form the southernmost part of the Eastern forest-boreal transition ecoregion.
Forest on Mount Dajt, Albania
Share of land that is covered by forest
Forest in the Scottish Highlands
Forest in Kuopio, Finland
Since the 13th century, the Niepołomice Forest in Poland has had special use and protection. In this view from space, different coloration can indicate different functions.
A forest near Vinitsa, North Macedonia
Tywi Forest, Wales
Temperate rainforest in Tasmania's Hellyer Gorge
Even, dense old-growth stand of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) prepared to be regenerated by their saplings in the understory, in the Brussels part of the Sonian Forest.
Biogradska forest in Montenegro
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation
A dry sclerophyll forest in Sydney, which is dominated by eucalyptus trees.
Proportion and distribution of global forest area by climatic domain, 2020
Broadleaf forest in Bhutan
Taiga forest near Saranpaul in the northeast Ural Mountains, Khanty–Mansia, Russia. Trees include Picea obovata (dominant on right bank), Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica, and Betula pendula.
Redwood tree in northern California redwood forest, where many redwood trees are managed for preservation and longevity, rather than being harvested for wood production
Burned forest on Thasos
Priest River winding through Whitetail Butte with lots of forestry to the east—these lot patterns have existed since the mid-19th century. The white patches reflect areas with younger, smaller trees, where winter snow cover shows up brightly to the astronauts. Dark green-brown squares are parcels
Proportion of forest in protected areas, by region, 2020
Garibaldi Provincial Park, British Columbia
Latvian Pine Forest in Ķegums Municipality

Forests at different latitudes and elevations, and with different precipitation and evapotranspiration form distinctly different biomes: boreal forests around the North Pole, tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests around the Equator, and temperate forests at the middle latitudes.

A sampling of fungi collected during summer 2008 in Northern Saskatchewan mixed woods, near LaRonge, is an example regarding the species diversity of fungus. In this photo, there are also leaf lichens and mosses.

Biodiversity

6 links

Variety and variability of life on Earth.

Variety and variability of life on Earth.

A sampling of fungi collected during summer 2008 in Northern Saskatchewan mixed woods, near LaRonge, is an example regarding the species diversity of fungus. In this photo, there are also leaf lichens and mosses.
Distribution of living terrestrial vertebrate species, highest concentration of diversity shown in red in equatorial regions, declining polewards (towards the blue end of the spectrum) (Mannion 2014)
Apparent marine fossil diversity during the Phanerozoic
Summer field in Belgium (Hamois). The blue flowers are Centaurea cyanus and the red are Papaver rhoeas.
Amazon Rainforest in South America
The diverse forest canopy on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, yielded this display of different fruit
Agriculture production, pictured is a tractor and a chaser bin
Eagle Creek, Oregon hiking
Discovered and predicted total number of species on land and in the oceans
The Forest Landscape Integrity Index measures global anthropogenic modification on remaining forests annually. 0 = Most modification; 10= Least.
Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest in Bolivia cause significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.
Male Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant), a native of East Asia that has been introduced into parts of Europe for ornamental reasons
The Yecoro wheat (right) cultivar is sensitive to salinity, plants resulting from a hybrid cross with cultivar W4910 (left) show greater tolerance to high salinity
Polar bears on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, near the North Pole. Climate change has started affecting bear populations.
Summary of major biodiversity-related environmental-change categories expressed as a percentage of human-driven change (in red) relative to baseline (blue)
A schematic image illustrating the relationship between biodiversity, ecosystem services, human well-being and poverty. The illustration shows where conservation action, strategies, and plans can influence the drivers of the current biodiversity crisis at local, regional, to global scales.
The retreat of Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979, 1991 and 2002), due to global warming.
Percentage of forest in legally protected areas, 2020, from the Food and Agriculture Organization publication The State of the World's Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief
A great deal of work is occurring to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while continuing to allow visitor access.

Among other factors, the diversity of all living things (biota) depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other species.

Taiga

3 links

White spruce taiga in the Alaska Range, Alaska, United States
Siberian taiga
The taiga in the river valley near Verkhoyansk, Russia, at 67°N, experiences the coldest winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere, but the extreme continentality of the climate gives an average daily high of 22 C in July.
Boreal forest near Shovel Point in Tettegouche State Park, along the northern shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota.
Lakes and other water bodies are common in the taiga. The Helvetinjärvi National Park, Finland, is situated in the closed canopy taiga (mid-boreal to south-boreal) with mean annual temperature of 4 C.
Late September in the fjords near Narvik, Norway. This oceanic part of the forest can see more than 1,000 mm precipitation annually and has warmer winters than the vast inland taiga.
Yukon, Canada. Several of the world's longest rivers go through the taiga, including Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie.
Tukulan sandy area in the taiga of the Central Yakutian Lowland.
Boreal forest near Lake Baikal in Russia
Taiga spruce forest in the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Trees in this environment tend to grow closer to the trunk and not "bush out" in the normal manner of spruce trees.
Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga
Conifer cones and morels after fire in a boreal forest.
Brown bear, Kamchatka peninsula. Brown bears are among the largest and most widespread taiga omnivores.
The Funny River Fire in Alaska burned 193,597 acre, mostly Black spruce taiga
The Shanta Creek Fire began in a taiga area that had not had a major fire in over 130 years, and so was allowed to burn unchecked until it began to threaten populated areas.
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is situated in the taiga
Seney National Wildlife Refuge
Peat bog in Dalarna, Sweden. Bogs and peatland are widespread in the taiga. They are home to a unique flora, and store vast amounts of carbon. In western Eurasia, the Scots pine is common in the boreal forest.
The Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York form the southernmost part of the Eastern forest-boreal transition ecoregion, constituting part of the world’s taiga biome.

Taiga (relates to Mongolic and Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as a boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and larches.

Tundra

2 links

Tundra in Siberia
Vuntut National Park in Canada
A group of muskoxen in Alaska
Tundra on the Kerguelen Islands.
Alpine tundra in the North Cascades of Washington, United States
Tundra region with fjords, glaciers and mountains. Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen.
Nenets people are nomadic reindeer herders

In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by frigid temperatures and short growing seasons.

Extent of Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

3 links

Extent of Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
A Mediterranean forest, in the Region of Murcia (Spain).
Close up of Ephesos ancient Greek amphitheatre with a maquis shrubland
Springtime in Chilean Matorral a few kilometers north of Santiago along the Pan-American Highway
Scrubland of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, Southern California
Mediterranean cork oak trees, in Monchique, Algarve, Portugal
Sclerophyll woodland, Sydney
Festival of degradation VRUJA established by activists and artists in 2021 in Dalmatia, Croatia

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature.