# Biostatistics

**biostatisticianbiometrybiometricianbiometricbiostatisticiansbiometriciansbiostaticianbiostatisticalbio-statisticsBiological Statistics**

Biostatistics are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology.wikipedia

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### Karl Pearson

**PearsonPearson, KarlCarl Pearson**

This led to a vigorous debate between the biometricians, who supported Galton's ideas, as Walter Weldon, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire and Karl Pearson, and Mendelians, who supported Bateson's (and Mendel's) ideas, such as Charles Davenport and Wilhelm Johannsen.

Karl Pearson (born Carl Pearson; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936 ) was an English mathematician and biostatistician.

### Ronald Fisher

**R.A. FisherR. A. FisherFisher**

He established his reputation there in the following years as a biostatistician.

### Population genetics

**population geneticistevolutionary geneticspopulation genetic**

The three leading figures in the establishment of population genetics and this synthesis all relied on statistics and developed its use in biology.

Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian inheritance and biostatistics models.

### J. B. S. Haldane

**J.B.S. HaldaneHaldaneJohn Burdon Sanderson Haldane**

He made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

### Statistics

**statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician**

Biostatistics are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology. These and other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, and statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled.

Galton and Pearson founded Biometrika as the first journal of mathematical statistics and biostatistics (then called biometry), and the latter founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London.

### Thomas Hunt Morgan

**T. H. MorganThomas H. MorganT.H. Morgan**

One anecdote describes Thomas Hunt Morgan banning the Friden calculator from his department at Caltech, saying "Well, I am like a guy who is prospecting for gold along the banks of the Sacramento River in 1849. With a little intelligence, I can reach down and pick up big nuggets of gold. And as long as I can do that, I'm not going to let any people in my department waste scarce resources in placer mining."

Extensive work in biometry seemed to indicate that continuous natural variation had distinct limits and did not represent heritable changes.

### Francis Galton

**Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis**

Francis Galton tried to expand Mendel's discoveries with human data and proposed a different model with fractions of the heredity coming from each ancestral composing an infinite series.

He went on to found the biometric approach to the study of heredity, distinguished by its use of statistical techniques to study continuous traits and population-scale aspects of heredity.

### Walter Weldon

This led to a vigorous debate between the biometricians, who supported Galton's ideas, as Walter Weldon, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire and Karl Pearson, and Mendelians, who supported Bateson's (and Mendel's) ideas, such as Charles Davenport and Wilhelm Johannsen.

Walter's second son was Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, an English evolutionary zoologist and biometrician.

### Statistical inference

**inferential statisticsinferenceinferences**

Because of that, the sampling process is very important for statistical inference.

For example, limiting results are often invoked to justify the generalized method of moments and the use of generalized estimating equations, which are popular in econometrics and biostatistics.

### Gregor Mendel

**MendelGregor Johann MendelMendelian**

Gregor Mendel started the genetics studies investigating genetics segregation patterns in families of peas and used statistics to explain the collected data.

Most prominent of these previous approaches was the biometric school of Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon, which was based heavily on statistical studies of phenotype variation.

### Public health

**Community MedicinehealthSchool of Public Health**

Public health, including epidemiology, health services research, nutrition, environmental health and health care policy & management.

For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and management of health services are all relevant.

### Statistical hypothesis testing

**hypothesis testingstatistical teststatistical tests**

* Hypothesis testing

### Medicine

**medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine**

In these medicine contents, it's important to consider the design and analysis of the clinical trials.

### Health services research

**health systems researchhealth researchhealth researcher**

Public health, including epidemiology, health services research, nutrition, environmental health and health care policy & management.

Health services researchers come from a variety of specializations, including geography, nursing, economics, political science, epidemiology, public health, medicine, biostatistics, operations, management, engineering, pharmacy, psychology, usability and user experience design.

### Mathematical and theoretical biology

**mathematical biologytheoretical biologybiomathematics**

These and other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, and statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled.

### Biology

**biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist**

Biostatistics are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology.

### Experiment

**experimentalexperimentationexperiments**

It encompasses the design of biological experiments, the collection and analysis of data from those experiments and the interpretation of the results.

### Genetics

**geneticgeneticistgenetically**

These and other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, and statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled. Genetics studies, since its beginning, used statistical concepts to understand observed experimental results.

### William Bateson

**BatesonBateson, WilliamBateson's rule**

His ideas were strongly disagreed by William Bateson, who followed Mendel's conclusions, that genetic inheritance were exclusively from the parents, half from each of them.

### Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire

This led to a vigorous debate between the biometricians, who supported Galton's ideas, as Walter Weldon, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire and Karl Pearson, and Mendelians, who supported Bateson's (and Mendel's) ideas, such as Charles Davenport and Wilhelm Johannsen.

### Charles Davenport

**Charles Benedict DavenportCharles B. DavenportC. B. Davenport**

### Wilhelm Johannsen

**Johannsen, Wilhelm LudwigW. JohannsenW. L. Johannsen**

### Evolutionary biology

**evolutionary biologistevolutionary biologistsevolutionary**

These and other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, and statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled.

### D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson

**D'Arcy ThompsonD’Arcy Wentworth ThompsonSir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson**

In parallel to this overall development, the pioneering work of D'Arcy Thompson in On Growth and Form also helped to add quantitative discipline to biological study.