The logarithm of fitness as a function of the number of deleterious mutations. Synergistic epistasis is represented by the red line - each subsequent deleterious mutation has a larger proportionate effect on the organism's fitness. Antagonistic epistasis is in blue. The black line shows the non-epistatic case, where fitness is the product of the contributions from each of its loci.
Figure A: Line graph example. The birth rate in Brazil (2010–2016); Figure B: Bar chart example. The birth rate in Brazil for the December months from 2010 to 2016; Figure C: Example of Box Plot: number of glycines in the proteome of eight different organisms (A-H); Figure D: Example of a scatter plot.
Drosophila melanogaster
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Gene flow is the transfer of alleles from one population to another population through immigration of individuals. In this example, one of the birds from population A immigrates to population B, which has fewer of the dominant alleles, and through mating incorporates its alleles into the other population.
Scatter diagram that demonstrates the Pearson correlation for different values of ρ.
The Great Wall of China is an obstacle to gene flow of some terrestrial species.
Current tree of life showing vertical and horizontal gene transfers.

Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian inheritance and biostatistics models.

- Population genetics

The three leading figures in the establishment of population genetics and this synthesis all relied on statistics and developed its use in biology.

- Biostatistics
The logarithm of fitness as a function of the number of deleterious mutations. Synergistic epistasis is represented by the red line - each subsequent deleterious mutation has a larger proportionate effect on the organism's fitness. Antagonistic epistasis is in blue. The black line shows the non-epistatic case, where fitness is the product of the contributions from each of its loci.

2 related topics

Alpha

Fisher in 1913

Ronald Fisher

British polymath who was active as a mathematician, statistician, biologist, geneticist, and academic.

British polymath who was active as a mathematician, statistician, biologist, geneticist, and academic.

Fisher in 1913
As a child
Inverforth House, North End Way NW3, where Fisher lived from 1896 to 1904
On graduating from Cambridge University, 1912
The peacock tail in flight, the classic example of a Fisherian runaway
Rothamsted Research
Memorial plaque over his remains, lectern-side aisle of St Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide
Stained glass window (now removed) in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square, discussed by him in The Design of Experiments
As a steward at the First International Eugenics Conference, 1912

He established his reputation there in the following years as a biostatistician.

Together with J. B. S. Haldane and Sewall Wright, Fisher is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics.

Haldane in 1914

J. B. S. Haldane

British scientist who worked in physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics.

British scientist who worked in physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics.

Haldane in 1914
Marcello Siniscalco (standing) and Haldane in Andhra Pradesh, India, 1964
J.B.S. Haldane Avenue in Kolkata, the busy connecting road from Eastern Metropolitan Bypass to Park Circus area containing Science City
A Low cartoon featuring Haldane – "Prophesies for 1949"
Lysenko speaking at the Kremlin in 1935. Behind him are (left to right) Stanislav Kosior, Anastas Mikoyan, Andrei Andreev and Joseph Stalin.
Oxford University Museum of Natural History display dedicated to Haldane and his reply when asked to comment on the mind of the Creator.

With innovative use of statistics in biology, he was one of the founders of neo-Darwinism.

Subsequent works established a unification of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution by natural selection whilst laying the groundwork for modern evolutionary synthesis and thus helped to create population genetics.