Biotechnology

biotechbiotechnologicalBio-Technologybiotechnologistbiotechnologiesindustrial biotechnologybiotechnology companybio-techbiotechnology companiesbioscience
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).wikipedia
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Biomanufacturing

2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.
Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications.

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDBiodiversityUnited Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art.

Károly Ereky

The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky.
The term 'biotechnology' was coined by him in 1919.

Biomedical engineering

biomedical engineermedical engineeringbiomedical
2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.
Tissue engineering, like genetic engineering (see below), is a major segment of biotechnology – which overlaps significantly with BME.

Cell culture

cultureculturedcell line
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.
One complication of these blood-derived ingredients is the potential for contamination of the culture with viruses or prions, particularly in medical biotechnology applications.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Recombinant DNA is widely used in biotechnology, medicine and research.

Biochemical engineering

biochemicalbiochemical engineerphoto-bioreactors
Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).
It mainly deals with the design, construction, and advancement of unit processes that involve biological organisms or organic molecules and has various applications in areas of interest such as biofuels, food, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and water treatment processes.

Yeast

yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
In brewing, malted grains (containing enzymes) convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer.
The useful physiological properties of yeast have led to their use in the field of biotechnology.

Research and development

R&DResearch & DevelopmentR & D
Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).
Anything over 15% is remarkable, and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company such as engineering company Ericsson 24.9%, or Allergan a biotech company, tops the spending table with 43.4% investment Such companies are often seen as credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual.

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The ISFET is widely used in biomedical applications, such as the detection of DNA hybridization, biomarker detection from blood, antibody detection, glucose measurement, pH sensing, and genetic technology. Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering. The commercial viability of a biotechnology industry was significantly expanded on June 16, 1980, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

Biomedicine

biomedicalbio-medicinebiological pharmacy
The ISFET is widely used in biomedical applications, such as the detection of DNA hybridization, biomarker detection from blood, antibody detection, glucose measurement, pH sensing, and genetic technology.
It includes many biomedical disciplines and areas of specialty that typically contain the "bio-" prefix such as molecular biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, cell biology, embryology, nanobiotechnology, biological engineering, laboratory medical biology, cytogenetics, genetics, gene therapy, bioinformatics, biostatistics, systems biology, neuroscience, microbiology, virology, immunology, parasitology, physiology, pathology, anatomy, toxicology, and many others that generally concern life sciences as applied to medicine.

Chemical engineering

chemicalchemical engineerchemical technology
Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching.
In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

Genomics

genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Genomics has provided applications in many fields, including medicine, biotechnology, anthropology and other social sciences.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Similarly, with some exceptions (e.g. biotechnology) government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production,environment and medicine.
Pharmacology has become increasingly sophisticated; modern biotechnology allows drugs targeted towards specific physiological processes to be developed, sometimes designed for compatibility with the body to reduce side-effects.

Genentech

Genentech, Inc.Genentech, Incgene.com
To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.

Biosensor

biosensorsbiosensingbio-
Two years later, Leland C. Clark and Champ Lyons invented the first biosensor in 1962.
The appropriate placement of biosensors depends on their field of application, which may roughly be divided into biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and biomedicine.

Microorganism

microorganismsmicrobemicrobes
The commercial viability of a biotechnology industry was significantly expanded on June 16, 1980, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty.
They extend terrestrial life into much of the Earth's hydrosphere, crust and atmosphere, their specific evolutionary adaptation mechanisms to their extreme environment can be exploited in biotechnology, and their very existence under such extreme conditions increases the potential for extraterrestrial life.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli.
E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyMonsanto Chemical CompanyCalgene
Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato.
It was one of the top 10 US chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology.

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
His work led to the purification of the antibiotic compound formed by the mold by Howard Florey, Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley – to form what we today know as penicillin.
The biotechnological method of directed evolution has been applied to produce by mutation a large number of Penicillium strains.

History of biotechnology

biotechnology revolutionbiotechnology industry20th Century
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Biotechnology is based on the basic biological sciences (e.g. molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, embryology, genetics, microbiology) and conversely provides methods to support and perform basic research in biology.

List of largest biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies

List of biotechnology companiesList of largest biotechnology & pharmaceutical companies19th highest sales
The following is a list of the independent biotechnology companies listed on a stock exchange (as indicated) with current market capitalization of at least USD 10 billion, in decreasing order.