Biotechnology

biotechbiotechnologicalbiotechnologistbiotechnologiesindustrial biotechnologybio-technologybiotechnology companybiotechnology companiesbio-techbioscience
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).wikipedia
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Biomanufacturing

2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.
Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications.

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetic modificationgenetically modified
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

Károly Ereky

The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky.
The term 'biotechnology' was coined by him in 1919.

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDBiodiversityConvention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art.
Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology, to the governments and/or local communities that provided traditional knowledge and/or biodiversity resources.

Biomedical engineering

biomedical engineerbiomedicalmedical engineering
2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.
Tissue engineering, like genetic engineering (see below), is a major segment of biotechnology – which overlaps significantly with BME.

Cell culture

cultureculturedcell line
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.
One complication of these blood-derived ingredients is the potential for contamination of the culture with viruses or prions, particularly in medical biotechnology applications.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching.
In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

Genentech

Genentech, Inc.gene.comGenentech Inc Political Action Committee
To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Recombinant DNA is widely used in biotechnology, medicine and research.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneMonsanto Industrial Chemicals Co.
Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato.
It was one of the top 10 U.S. chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology.

Yeast

yeastsbudding yeastbrewer's yeast
In brewing, malted grains (containing enzymes) convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer.
The useful physiological properties of yeast have led to their use in the field of biotechnology.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.colie-coli
To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli.
E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.

Research and development

R&Dresearch & developmentdevelopment
Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).
Anything over 15% is remarkable, and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company such as engineering company Ericsson 24.9%, or Allergan a biotech company, tops the spending table with 43.4% investment Such companies are often seen as credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual.

History of biotechnology

biotechnology revolutionbiotechnology industry20th Century
History of biotechnology
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic planttransgenic plants
Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example would be the selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate. It is commonly considered as the next phase of green revolution, which can be seen as a platform to eradicate world hunger by using technologies which enable the production of more fertile and resistant, towards biotic and abiotic stress, plants and ensures application of environmentally friendly fertilizers and the use of biopesticides, it is mainly focused on the development of agriculture. On the other hand, some of the uses of green biotechnology involve microorganisms to clean and reduce waste.
The term genetic engineering is applied to genetic modifications made using biotechnology.

List of largest biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies

Cubist Pharmaceuticalsbiotech companies19th highest sales
List of biotechnology companies
The following is a list of the independent biotechnology companies listed on a stock exchange (as indicated) with current market capitalization of at least USD 10 billion, in decreasing order.

Timeline of biotechnology

Timeline of biotechnology
The historical application of biotechnology throughout time is provided below in order.

Virotherapy

viral therapy
Virotherapy
Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.

Competitions and prizes in biotechnology

Gotham Prize
Competitions and prizes in biotechnology
There exist a number of competitions and prizes to reward distinguished contributions and to encourage developments in biotechnology.

Outline of biotechnology

Biotechnologyoutline
Outline of biotechnology
Biotechnology – field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.

Biological engineering

bioengineeringbioengineerbioengineered
2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.
Bioengineering is overlaps substantially with biotechnology and the biomedical sciences in a way analogous to how various other forms of engineering and technology relate to various other sciences (for example, aerospace engineering and other space technology to kinetics and astrophysics).

Chemical engineering

chemicalchemical engineerchemical technology
Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.
Biotechnology

SWORD-financing

SWORD-financing
SWORD-financing (stock and warrant off-balance sheet research & development) is a special form of financing invented to help junior biotech companies access institutional capital markets to finance their R&D via establishing a special purpose entity and giving the investors partial rights to the outcomes of the R&D projects that they are funding.