Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Bipolar mood shifts
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with hilarious mania
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'
'Melancholy' by William Bagg, after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder.
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children.
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century.
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokesperson for mental illness.

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

- Bipolar disorder

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Lithium (medication)

A bottle of lithium medicine containing 300 mg capsules of lithium carbonate.

Certain lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are used as psychiatric medication, primarily for bipolar disorder and for major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of antidepressants.


500mg tablets of Depakote extended-release
Some metabolites of valproic acid. Glucuronidation and β-oxidation are the main metabolic pathways; ω-oxidation metabolites are considered hepatotoxic. Details see text.

Valproate (VPA) and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and prevent migraine headaches.


Anticonvulsants (also known as antiepileptic drugs or recently as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.


Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.


Anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

Tegretol 200-mg CR (made in NZ)
Metabolism. Top: carbamazepine • middle: carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, the active metabolite • bottom: carbamazepine-10,11-diol, an inactive metabolite, which is then glucuronidized

It is used as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.

Psychiatric hospital

Traverse City State Hospital, Traverse City, Michigan
Niuvanniemi Hospital, Niuva, Kuopio, Finland
Administration Building at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts. McLean is noted for having once treated several New Englanders of renown, including Massachusetts Governor Nathaniel P. Banks, musician James Taylor, and poet Anne Sexton.
The York Retreat was built by William Tuke, a pioneer of moral treatment for the mentally ill.
The Republican Vilnius Psychiatric Hospital in Naujoji Vilnia (Parko g. 15), is one of the largest health facilities in Lithuania; built in 1902, it officially opened on 21 May 1903.
Art Nouveau styled Röykkä Hospital, formerly known as Nummela Sanatorium, in Röykkä, Finland.
Vienna's Narrenturm—German for "fools' tower"—was one of the earliest buildings specifically designed for mentally ill people. It was built in 1784.

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental health units or behavioral health units, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.


Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics, are a class of psychotropic medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia but also in a range of other psychotic disorders.

Olanzapine, an example of a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic
Advertisement for Thorazine (chlorpromazine) from the 1950s, reflecting the perceptions of psychosis, including the now-discredited perception of a tendency towards violence, from the time when antipsychotics were discovered

They are also the mainstay together with mood stabilizers in the treatment of bipolar disorder.


Intentional behavior that is considered harmful to oneself.

Healed scars on the forearm from prior self harm
A flow chart of two theories of self-harm
The results of self-flagellation, as part of an annual Shia mourning ritual (Muharram)
One of the consequences of the Black Death was practiced self-flogging.
A ritual flagellation tool known as a zanjir, used in Muharram observances
Feather-plucking in a Moluccan Cockatoo
Lick granuloma from excessive licking

The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, phobias, and conduct disorders.

Electroconvulsive therapy

Psychiatric treatment where a generalized seizure (without muscular convulsions) is electrically induced to manage refractory mental disorders.

MECTA spECTrum 5000Q with electroencephalography (EEG) in a modern ECT suite
Electroconvulsive therapy machine on display at Glenside Museum in Bristol, England
ECT device produced by Siemens and used for example at the Asyl psychiatric hospital in Kristiansand, Norway from the 1960s to the 1980s
An illustration depicting electroconvulsive therapy
ECT machine from before 1960.
A Bergonic chair, a device "for giving general electric treatment for psychological effect, in psycho-neurotic cases", according to original photo description. World War I era.

They were re-classified as Class II devices, for treatment of catatonia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, in 2018.

Bipolar II disorder

Graphical representation of Bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
(Left) A lithograph of a woman diagnosed with mania. (Right) A lithograph of a woman diagnosed with depression. 1892, after J. Williamson, 1890.
Lamotrigine (Lamictal) is an anticonvulsant that can be used as a mood stabilizer to treat BP-II.
Quetiapine (Seroquel) is an antipsychotic that is used to treat acute BP-II depression

Bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is a mood disorder on the bipolar spectrum, characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.

Mood (psychology)

Affective state.

Visual Representation of Commonly Experienced Moods

Long term disturbances of mood such as clinical depression and bipolar disorder are considered mood disorders.