Bird

birdsAvesavianavifaunaNeornithesnestlingroostroostingmodern birdsmantle
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.wikipedia
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Passerine

Passeriformespasserinesperching bird
They rank as the world's most numerically successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerine, or "perching" birds.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.

Seabird

seabirdssea birdsea birds
Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.

Penguin

penguinsSpheniscidaeSphenisciformes
Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic flightless birds.

Crocodilia

crocodiliancrocodyliacrocodilians
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria.
They first appeared 95 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period (Cenomanian stage) and are the closest living relatives of birds, as the two groups are the only known survivors of the Archosauria.

Parrot

PsittaciformesparrotsPsittacidae
Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals; several bird species make and use tools, and many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.

Archaeopteryx

Archaeopteryx lithographicaArchaeornisGriphornis
Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, retained primitive characteristics such as teeth and long bony tails.
Archaeopteryx (, ; sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.

Bird vocalization

songcallcalls
Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and bird songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators.
In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear.

Dinosaur

dinosaursDinosaurianon-avian dinosaurs
This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs, according to cladistics. Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others.
The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch.

Endotherm

endothermsendothermyendothermic
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Only birds and mammals are extant universally endothermic groups of animals.

Songbird

songbirdssong birdoscine
Songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets.
A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes).

Avialae

avialanavialansbirds
Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago.
Avialae ("bird wings") is a clade of flying dinosaurs containing the only living dinosaurs, the birds.

Tetrapod

tetrapodsTetrapodaland vertebrates
They rank as the world's most numerically successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerine, or "perching" birds.
One group of amniotes diverged into the reptiles, which includes lepidosaurs, dinosaurs (which includes birds), crocodilians, turtles, and extinct relatives; while another group of amniotes diverged into the mammals and their extinct relatives.

Pterosaur

pterosaursPterosauriapterodactyl
DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages.
Pterosaur bones were hollow and air-filled, like those of birds.

Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
In the sea, the bony fishes became dominant; the birds, a derived form of dinosaurs, evolved in the Jurassic.

Elephant bird

elephant birdsaepyornithidAepyornithidae
Birds have whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds.
In September 2018, scientists determined that Vorombe titan reached weights of 730 kg and stood 3 m tall, making it the world's largest bird, slightly larger than the much older Dromornis stirtoni.

Mobbing (animal behavior)

mobbingmobmobbing behavior
Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and bird songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators.
This is most frequently seen in birds, though it is also known to occur in many other animals such as the meerkat and some bovines.

Bird flight

flightflyingwings
Jacques Gauthier, who named Avialae in 1986, re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered wings used in flapping flight, and the birds that descended from them.
Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species in which birds take off and fly.

Archosaur

Archosauriaarchosaursarchosaurian
Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria.
The living representatives of this group consist of birds and crocodilians.

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

extinction of the dinosaursCretaceous-Paleogene extinction eventK-Pg extinction event
DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages.
It also destroyed a plethora of other terrestrial organisms, including some mammals, pterosaurs, birds, lizards, insects, and plants.

Theropoda

theropodtheropodsTheropoda indet.
The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs. Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others.
Theropods first appeared during the Carnian age of the late Triassic period 231.4 million years ago (Ma) and included the sole large terrestrial carnivores from the Early Jurassic until at least the close of the Cretaceous, about 66 Ma. In the Jurassic, birds evolved from small specialized coelurosaurian theropods, and are today represented by about 10,500 living species.

Maniraptora

maniraptoranmaniraptormaniraptorans
Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others.
Maniraptora is a clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs which includes the birds and the non-avian dinosaurs that were more closely related to them than to Ornithomimus velox.

Saurischia

saurischianEusaurischiaeusaurischian
The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
All carnivorous dinosaurs (certain types of theropods) are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs.

Avemetatarsalia

OrnithodiraornithodireAvemetatarsalian
Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodilians.

Oviparity

oviparousovipositionoviposit
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
This is the reproductive method of most fish, amphibians, reptiles, all birds, and the monotremes.

Tool use by animals

tool useuse toolsusing tools
Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals; several bird species make and use tools, and many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture.
Several studies in primates and birds have found that tool use is correlated with an enlargement of the brain as a whole or of particular regions.