Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defectscongenital defectmalformationcongenital malformationcongenital anomaliescongenital abnormalitiescongenital malformationscongenital disease
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.wikipedia
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Neural tube defect

neural tube defectsspinal dysraphismdefects
The types with the greatest numbers of deaths are congenital heart disease (303,000), followed by neural tube defects (65,000).
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spine or cranium remains from early in human development.

Minor physical anomalies

Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are relatively minor (typically painless and, in themselves, harmless) congenital physical abnormalities consisting of features such as low-set ears, single transverse palmar crease, telecanthus, micrognathism, macrocephaly, hypotonia and furrowed tongue.

Prenatal testing

prenatal diagnosisprenatal screeningprenatal test
A number of defects can be detected before birth by different prenatal tests.
Screening can detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to genetic disorders and birth defects, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Downs Syndrome, Tay–Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.

Dysmelia

micromeliaLeglessbirth defect
A limb anomaly is called a dysmelia.
-ia) is a congenital disorder of a limb resulting from a disturbance in embryonic development.

Polydactyly

polydactylsix-fingeredpolydactylism
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.

Polymelia

Henrietta the four-legged chickennotomelia
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Polymelia is a birth defect in which an affected individual has more than the usual number of limbs.

Ectrodactyly

Cleft handclaw handclawhand
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
It is a rare form of a congenital disorder in which the development of the hand is disturbed.

Constriction ring syndrome

amniotic band syndromeAmniotic band constrictionAmniotic band
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Constriction ring syndrome (CRS) is a congenital disorder with unknown cause.

Cleidocranial dysostosis

cleidocranial dysplasiacleido cranial dysplasiaCleidocranial dyspalsia
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also called cleidocranial dysplasia, is a birth defect that mostly affects the bones and teeth.

Spina bifida

myelomeningocelemeningocelespina bifida occulta
Congenital anomalies of the nervous system include neural tube defects such as spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly.
Spina bifida is a birth defect in which there is incomplete closing of the spine and membranes around the spinal cord during early development in pregnancy.

Aplasia

aplastic
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Aplasia (from Greek a (not, no); plasis (molding)) is a birth defect, where an organ, or a tissue, is absent, or defective.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDCCenters for Disease ControlCenter for Disease Control
CDC combats emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, obesity, avian, swine, and pandemic flu, E. coli, and bioterrorism, to name a few.

Assistive technology

assistive technologiesassistive deviceadaptive technology
This may include therapy, medication, surgery, or assistive technology.
It is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of using mechanical devices with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum

agenesisCorpus callosum agenesishypoplasia of the corpus callosum
Other congenital anomalies of the nervous system include the Arnold-Chiari malformation, the Dandy-Walker malformation, hydrocephalus, microencephaly, megalencephaly, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, holoprosencephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum.

Phocomelia

Thalidomidethalidomide syndromeborn without arms or legs
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital disorder involving malformation of the limbs (dysmelia).

Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalyhydrocephalicobstructive hydrocephalus
Other congenital anomalies of the nervous system include the Arnold-Chiari malformation, the Dandy-Walker malformation, hydrocephalus, microencephaly, megalencephaly, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, holoprosencephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Hydrocephalus can occur due to birth defects or be acquired later in life.

Brachydactyly

Brachydactyly type A2BDA1BBrachydactyly type A1
These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, polymelia, polydactyly, syndactyly, polysyndactyly, oligodactyly, brachydactyly, achondroplasia, congenital aplasia or hypoplasia, amniotic band syndrome, and cleidocranial dysostosis.
It most often occurs as an isolated dysmelia, but can also occur with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes.

Gastroschisis

gastrochisisabdominoschisisLaparoschisis
Congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal system include numerous forms of stenosis and atresia, and perforation, such as gastroschisis.
Gastroschisis is a birth defect in which the baby's intestines extend outside of the abdomen through a hole next to the belly button.

Teratology

Dysmorphologyteratogenicteratogen
Substances whose toxicity can cause congenital disorders are called teratogens, and include certain pharmaceutical and recreational drugs in pregnancy, as well as many environmental toxins in pregnancy.
It is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities, but it is broader than that, taking into account other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other organisms, including plants.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

fetal alcohol syndromefetal alcohol spectrum disordersfoetal alcohol syndrome
The compromised stress management skills of animals whose male parent was exposed to alcohol are similar to the exaggerated responses to stress that children with fetal alcohol syndrome display because of maternal alcohol use.
FASDs encompass a range of physical and neurodevelopmental problems that can result from prenatal alcohol exposure.

Holoprosencephaly

HPE3
Other congenital anomalies of the nervous system include the Arnold-Chiari malformation, the Dandy-Walker malformation, hydrocephalus, microencephaly, megalencephaly, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, holoprosencephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum.
When the embryo's forebrain does not divide to form bilateral cerebral hemispheres (the left and right halves of the brain), it causes defects in the development of the face and in brain structure and function.

Disability

disableddisabilitieshandicapped
Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental.

Environmental toxicants and fetal development

environmental toxins in pregnancyEnvironmental toxins and fetal developmentenvironmental toxin in pregnancy
Substances whose toxicity can cause congenital disorders are called teratogens, and include certain pharmaceutical and recreational drugs in pregnancy, as well as many environmental toxins in pregnancy.

Childbirth

laborbirthlabour
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with congenital and infections in newborn babies, particularly in the areas where rates of infection remain high.

Drugs in pregnancy

Drugsfetal drug exposurehuman teratogen
Substances whose toxicity can cause congenital disorders are called teratogens, and include certain pharmaceutical and recreational drugs in pregnancy, as well as many environmental toxins in pregnancy.
Australia’s categorisations system takes into account the birth defects, the effects around the birth or when the mother gives birth, and problems that will arise later in the child's life caused from the drug taken.