Bit rate

Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.

Number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

- Bit rate
Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.

39 related topics

Alpha

Comparison of coding efficiency between popular audio formats

MP3

Coding format for digital audio developed largely by the Fraunhofer Society in Germany, with support from other digital scientists in the United States and elsewhere.

Coding format for digital audio developed largely by the Fraunhofer Society in Germany, with support from other digital scientists in the United States and elsewhere.

Comparison of coding efficiency between popular audio formats

Part 3 quantifies and encodes each sample, known as noise allocation, which adjusts itself in order to meet the bit rate and sound masking requirements.

Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.

Data compression

Process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.
Solidyne 922: The world's first commercial audio bit compression sound card for PC, 1990
Processing stages of a typical video encoder

For example, one 640 MB compact disc (CD) holds approximately one hour of uncompressed high fidelity music, less than 2 hours of music compressed losslessly, or 7 hours of music compressed in the MP3 format at a medium bit rate.

A program in paper tape

Lossy compression

Class of data compression methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.

Class of data compression methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.

A program in paper tape

A study conducted by the Audio Engineering Library concluded that lower bit rate (112 kbps) lossy compression formats such as MP3s have distinct effects on timbral and emotional characteristics, tending to strengthen negative emotional qualities and weaken positive ones.

Example of 4:2:0 subsampling. The two overlapping center circles represent chroma blue and chroma red (color) pixels, while the 4 outside circles represent the luma (brightness).

MPEG-1

Standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

Standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

Example of 4:2:0 subsampling. The two overlapping center circles represent chroma blue and chroma red (color) pixels, while the 4 outside circles represent the luma (brightness).
Example FFT analysis on an audio wave sample.
ASPEC 91 in the Deutsches Museum Bonn, with encoder (below) and decoder

Bitrates for Layer I: 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 288, 320, 352, 384, 416 and 448 kbit/s

Some of the different types of data.

Bandwidth (computing)

Maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

Maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

Some of the different types of data.

Digital bandwidth may also refer to: multimedia bit rate or average bitrate after multimedia data compression (source coding), defined as the total amount of data divided by the playback time.

MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are container formats.

MPEG-2

Not to be confused with MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2).

Not to be confused with MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2).

MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are container formats.

MPEG-2 video is not optimized for low bit rates, especially less than 1 Mbit/s at standard-definition resolutions.

A program in paper tape

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

Lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).

Lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).

A program in paper tape

Bit rates: 32, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 320 and 384 kbit/s

Original image, with good text edges and color grade

Compression artifact

Noticeable distortion of media (including images, audio, and video) caused by the application of lossy compression.

Noticeable distortion of media (including images, audio, and video) caused by the application of lossy compression.

Original image, with good text edges and color grade
Loss of edge clarity and tone "fuzziness" in heavy JPEG compression
Illustration of the effect of JPEG compression on a slightly noisy image with a mixture of text and whitespace. Text is a screen capture from a Wikipedia conversation with noise added (intensity 10 in Paint.NET). One frame of the animation was saved as a JPEG (quality 90) and reloaded. Both frames were then zoomed by a factor of 4 (nearest neighbor interpolation).
Block coding artifacts in a JPEG image. Flat blocks are caused by coarse quantization. Discontinuities at transform block boundaries are visible.
Example of image with artifacts due to a transmission error

Lossy data compression involves discarding some of the media's data so that it becomes small enough to be stored within the desired disk space or transmitted (streamed) within the available bandwidth (known as the data rate or bit rate).

Advanced Video Coding

Video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated coding.

Video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated coding.

Block diagram of H.264
A YouTube video statistics with AVC (H.264) video codec and Opus audio format

The intent of the H.264/AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards (i.e., half or less the bit rate of MPEG-2, H.263, or MPEG-4 Part 2), without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement.

Baseband bandwidth. Here the bandwidth equals the upper frequency.

Bandwidth (signal processing)

Difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

Difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

Baseband bandwidth. Here the bandwidth equals the upper frequency.
The magnitude response of a band-pass filter illustrating the concept of −3 dB bandwidth at a gain of approximately 0.707.

the data rate (e.g., in Gbit/s) achieved in an optical communication system; see bandwidth (computing).