Black Cat Squadron

35th Squadronflying U-2 spy planes over mainland China on behalf ofTaiwanese pilots
The Black Cat Squadron, formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974.wikipedia
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Republic of China Air Force

Chinese Air ForceAir ForceROCAF
The Black Cat Squadron, formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974. After his retirement, he and his family immigrated to Los Angeles in 1986, where he became an ardent activist for ROCAF POWs' rights, particularly the right of POWs to return to Taiwan to reunite with their families after imprisonment in mainland China. Since the 1950s, the Republic of China Air Force had used the RB-57A/D aircraft for reconnaissance missions over the PRC, but suffered two losses when MiG-17s and SA-2 Surface-to-Air Missiles were able to intercept the aircraft.
Known as the Black Cat Squadron they flew a total of 220 missions, with 102 missions over mainland China, losing 5 aircraft.

Yeh Changti

In addition to Lu Xiliang, another six former-members of the squadron eventually settled in the US, including Zhuang Renliang, Wang Taiyou in Los Angeles, Yeh Changti in Texas, Hua Xijun in Maryland, and the deputy squadron commander Yang Shiju in Las Vegas.
A member of the CIA-trained Black Cat Squadron, he flew the American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft to spy on China's nuclear program.

Lockheed U-2

U-2U-2 spy planeTR-1
The Black Cat Squadron, formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974.
ROC and American authorities reached an agreement in 1958 to create the 35th Squadron, nicknamed the Black Cat Squadron, composed of two U-2Cs in Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, at an isolated part of the air base.

Taoyuan Air Base

The Black Cat Squadron, formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974.
The Black Cat Squadron flying U-2 surveillance aircraft was based here from 1961 to 1974.

S-75 Dvina

SA-2SA-2 GuidelineS-75
During the squadron's 14 years of existence, five U-2s were shot down by PRC air defenses (using SA-2 missiles ), with three pilots killed and two captured. Since the 1950s, the Republic of China Air Force had used the RB-57A/D aircraft for reconnaissance missions over the PRC, but suffered two losses when MiG-17s and SA-2 Surface-to-Air Missiles were able to intercept the aircraft.

Chang Liyi

Jack Chang
A member of the CIA-trained Black Cat Squadron, he flew the American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft to spy on China's nuclear program.

Black Bat Squadron

Black Bat
This set the stage for Operation Heavy Tea, conducted by the Black Bat Squadron.
After the failure of the Black Cat Squadron to plant operating sensor pods near the Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base, the CIA developed a plan to deploy two battery-powered sensor pallets near the base.

Squadron (aviation)

squadronsquadronsfighter squadron
The Black Cat Squadron, formally the 35th Squadron, was a squadron of the Republic of China Air Force that flew the U-2 surveillance plane out of Taoyuan Air Base in northern Taiwan, from 1961 to 1974.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
26 ROCAF pilots successfully completed U-2 training in the US and flew 220 operational missions, with about half over the People's Republic of China. The only other U-2 operator than USAF and CIA was the Republic of China (Taiwan), which flew missions mostly over the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Shanghai

Shanghai, ChinaSHAShanghai Municipality
Colonel Lu was born in Shanghai on December 27, 1923 and completed his training in the US.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALos Angeles, United States
After his retirement, he and his family immigrated to Los Angeles in 1986, where he became an ardent activist for ROCAF POWs' rights, particularly the right of POWs to return to Taiwan to reunite with their families after imprisonment in mainland China.

Las Vegas Valley

Las VegasLas Vegas, NevadaLas Vegas, Nevada, USA
In addition to Lu Xiliang, another six former-members of the squadron eventually settled in the US, including Zhuang Renliang, Wang Taiyou in Los Angeles, Yeh Changti in Texas, Hua Xijun in Maryland, and the deputy squadron commander Yang Shiju in Las Vegas.

Richard Nixon

Richard M. NixonNixonPresident Nixon
The intelligence gathered by the Black Cat Squadron, which included evidence of a military build-up on the Sino-Soviet border, may have contributed to the U.S. opening to China during the Nixon administration by revealing the escalating tensions between the two communist nations.

Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China

1972 Nixon visit to Chinavisit to China1972 visit to China
Shortly after Nixon's visit to Beijing, all reconnaissance flights over the People's Republic ceased, and the Black Cat Squadron was officially disbanded in the spring of 1974.

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
Shortly after Nixon's visit to Beijing, all reconnaissance flights over the People's Republic ceased, and the Black Cat Squadron was officially disbanded in the spring of 1974.

Taiwan

Republic of ChinaFormosaRepublic of China (Taiwan)
The only other U-2 operator than USAF and CIA was the Republic of China (Taiwan), which flew missions mostly over the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Martin B-57 Canberra

B-57 CanberraB-57Martin RB-57A Canberra
Since the 1950s, the Republic of China Air Force had used the RB-57A/D aircraft for reconnaissance missions over the PRC, but suffered two losses when MiG-17s and SA-2 Surface-to-Air Missiles were able to intercept the aircraft.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17

MiG-17MiG-17sMiG-17F
Since the 1950s, the Republic of China Air Force had used the RB-57A/D aircraft for reconnaissance missions over the PRC, but suffered two losses when MiG-17s and SA-2 Surface-to-Air Missiles were able to intercept the aircraft.

Cortez, Colorado

CortezCortez, COCity of '''Cortez
On the night of 3 August 1959, a U-2 on a training mission, out of Laughlin AFB, Texas, piloted by Maj. Mike Hua of ROC Air Force, made a successful unassisted nighttime emergency landing at Cortez, Colorado, that was later known as the "Miracle at Cortez".

Gansu

Gansu ProvinceKansuGansu, China
For this purpose the ROC pilots flew as far as Gansu and other remote regions in northwest China.

Takhli

Some of the missions, due to mission requirements and range, plus to add some element of surprise, had the 35th Squadron's U-2s flying from or recovered at other US air bases in Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia, such as K-8 (Kunsan) in South Korea, or Takhli in Thailand.

Nanchang

Nanchang, ChinaYuzhangNanchang, Jiangxi
On 9 September 1962, the first loss occurred when the PRC downed a U-2 near Nanchang; the pilot Chen Huai died in a PRC hospital.

China and weapons of mass destruction

ChinaChinese nuclear weapons programChinese nuclear program
Other countries were also covered from time to time by the 35th Squadron, such as North Korea, North Vietnam and Laos, but the main objective of the ROC 35th Squadron was to conduct reconnaissance missions assessing the PRC's nuclear capabilities. The demand for intelligence on the Chinese nuclear program grew but so did the number of PRC SAM sites and use of the Fan Song radar, and ROC overflights became more dangerous.

Fan Song

SNR-75
The demand for intelligence on the Chinese nuclear program grew but so did the number of PRC SAM sites and use of the Fan Song radar, and ROC overflights became more dangerous.

Electronic countermeasure

electronic countermeasuresECMelectronic attack
Two more ROC U-2s were shot down, one on 1 November 1963 and one on 7 July 1964, and ROC demanded improved electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment.