Black Death

plagueBlack PlagueGreat Plaguethe plagueThe Black Deathbubonic plagueThe Black Plagueplague-related deathsGreat Mortalitypestilence
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.wikipedia
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Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, which killed over 20 million people in 1350.

Second plague pandemic

plagueSecond Pandemicpandemic
The Black Death was the first major European outbreak of plague, and the second plague pandemic.
The second plague pandemic is a major series of epidemics of the plague that started with the Black Death, which reached mainland Europe in 1348 and killed up to a half of the population of Eurasia in the next four years.

Yersinia pestis

Y. pestisplaguebubonic plague bacillus
The bacterium Yersinia pestis, which results in several forms of plague, is believed to have been the cause.
All three forms were responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history, including the sixth century's Plague of Justinian; the Black Death, which accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population between 1347 and 1353; the Great Plague of London of 1665, which was ended in 1666 by the Great Fire of London; and the Third Pandemic, sometimes referred to as the Modern Plague, which began in the late 19th century in China and spread by rats on steamboats, claiming close to 10,000,000 lives.

History of Europe

European historyModern European historyEurope
The plague created a number of religious, social and economic upheavals, with profound effects on the course of European history.
The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted.

World population

human populationglobal populationworld's population
In total, the plague may have reduced the world population from an estimated 475 million to 350–375 million in the 14th century.
The world population has experienced continuous growth following the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the end of the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.

Black rat

Rattus rattusblack ratsrats
From there, it was most likely carried by fleas living on the black rats that traveled on all merchant ships, spreading throughout the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
Rats played a primary role in spreading bacteria contained in fleas on their body, such as Yersinia pestis, which is responsible for the Plague of Justinian and the Black Death.

Plague (disease)

plagueplaguesthe plague
The bacterium Yersinia pestis, which results in several forms of plague, is believed to have been the cause.
It has historically occurred in large outbreaks, with the best known being the Black Death in the 14th century, which resulted in greater than 50 million deaths.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Europe was devastated in the mid-14th century by the Black Death, one of the most deadly pandemics in human history which killed an estimated 25 million people in Europe alone—a third of the European population at the time.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Death alone killed approximately 75 to 200 million people between 1347 and 1350.

Bergen

Bergen, NorwayBjørgvinBergen, Hordaland
It was introduced in Norway in 1349 when a ship landed at Askøy, then spread to Bjørgvin (modern Bergen) and Iceland.
In 1349, the Black Death was brought to Norway by an English ship arriving in Bergen.

Iceland

IcelandicISLRepublic of Iceland
It was introduced in Norway in 1349 when a ship landed at Askøy, then spread to Bjørgvin (modern Bergen) and Iceland.
The Black Death swept Iceland twice, first in 1402–1404 and again in 1494–1495.

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenoan
Plague was reportedly first introduced to Europe via Genoese traders from the port city of Kaffa in the Crimea in 1347.
The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa (Theodosia) in Crimea, on the Black Sea.

Jani Beg

JanibegJani-BegJanibeg Khan
During a protracted siege of the city by the Mongol army under Jani Beg, whose army was suffering from the disease, the army catapulted infected corpses over the city walls of Kaffa to infect the inhabitants.
In 1345 Jani Beg again besieged Kaffa; however, his assault was again unsuccessful due to an outbreak of the Black Plague among his troops.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Medical knowledge had stagnated during the Middle Ages.
The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine, plague, and war, which significantly diminished the population of Europe; between 1347 and 1350, the Black Death killed about a third of Europeans.

Quarantine

quarantine stationquarantinedquarantining
One development as a result of the Black Death was the establishment of the idea of quarantine in the city-state of Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik, Croatia) in 1377 after continuing outbreaks.
The word quarantine comes from a seventeenth-century Venetian variant of the Italian quaranta giorni, meaning forty days, the period that all ships were required to be isolated before passengers and crew could go ashore during the Black Death plague epidemic.

Miasma theory

miasmamiasma theory of diseasemiasmas
Today, this is known as the miasma theory.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

Sicily

SicilianSiciliaSicilians
The Genoese traders fled, taking the plague by ship into Sicily and the south of Europe, whence it spread north.
In October 1347, in Messina, Sicily, the Black Death first arrived in Europe.

Philip VI of France

Philip VIKing Philip VIPhilip of Valois
The most authoritative account at the time came from the medical faculty in Paris in a report to the king of France that blamed the heavens, in the form of a conjunction of three planets in 1345 that caused a "great pestilence in the air".
The English took another decisive advantage at the Battle of Crécy (1346), while the Black Death struck France, further destabilizing the country.

Issyk-Kul

Issyk KulIssyk Kul LakeIssyk-Kul Lake
Nestorian graves dating to 1338–1339 near Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan have inscriptions referring to plague and are thought by many epidemiologists to mark the outbreak of the epidemic, from which it could easily have spread to China and India.
Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century.

Feodosia

FeodosiyaCaffaKaffa
Plague was reportedly first introduced to Europe via Genoese traders from the port city of Kaffa in the Crimea in 1347.
It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde.

Plague of Justinian

Justinian plagueplaguegreat plague
He was able to adopt the epidemiology of the bubonic plague for the Black Death for the second edition in 1908, implicating rats and fleas in the process, and his interpretation was widely accepted for other ancient and medieval epidemics, such as the Plague of Justinian that was prevalent in the Eastern Roman Empire from 541 to 700 CE.
The plague's social and cultural impact has been compared to that of the similar Black Death that devastated Europe in the Middle Ages, 600 years after the last outbreak of Justinian's plague.

Silk Road

Silk Routesilk tradesilk
The Black Death is thought to have originated in the dry plains of Central Asia, where it travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343.
Some studies indicate that the Black Death, which devastated Europe starting in the late 1340s, may have reached Europe from Central Asia (or China) along the trade routes of the Mongol Empire.

Pneumonic plague

pneumonicPlague, pneumonicplague
Some accounts, like that of Lodewijk Heyligen, whose master the Cardinal Colonna died of the plague in 1348, noted a distinct form of the disease that infected the lungs and led to respiratory problems and is identified with pneumonic plague.
Some hypothesize that the pneumonic version of the plague was mainly responsible for the Black Death that resulted in approximately 50 million deaths in the 1300s.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
During 1347, the disease travelled eastward to Gaza, and north along the eastern coast to cities in Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, including Ashkelon, Acre, Jerusalem, Sidon, Damascus, Homs, and Aleppo.
The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.

Republic of Ragusa

RagusanRagusaRepublic of Dubrovnik
One development as a result of the Black Death was the establishment of the idea of quarantine in the city-state of Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik, Croatia) in 1377 after continuing outbreaks.
In January 1348, the Black Death struck the city and decimated the urban population.